Lactobacillus rhamnosus Reduces Blood Glucose Level through Downregulation of Gluconeogenesis Gene Expression in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic RatsRead the full article
International Journal of Food Science publishes research in all areas of food science. It is a multidisciplinary journal and includes research on enhancing shelf life, food deterioration, food engineering, food handling, food processing and similar.
International Journal of Food Science maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Response Surface Optimization of Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) with Lantana camara (L. camara) Fruit Fermentation Process for Quality Wine Production
Fermenting blended fruits has been used to improve fruit wine quality. Cactus pear and Lantana camara fruits have well-known nutritive and health benefits. The purpose of this study was to investigate cactus wine quality improvement by applying response surface optimization method of cactus pear and Lantana camara fruits juice fermentation process. Wine quality responses were optimized at an experimental strategy developed using central composite rotatory design by varying fermentation process variable temperature, inoculum, and Lantana camara fruit juice concentration for six days. The developed fermentation models were significant () to predict alcohol, total phenol content, and sensory property of the final wine accurately. From the statistics calculations, fermentation temperature of 24.8°C, inoculum concentration 10.16% (), and Lantana camara fruit juice concentration of 10.66% () were the overall optimum values to produce cactus pear fruit wine with alcohol (), total phenol content (mg L-1 equivalent to gallic acid), and sensory value of . The Lantana camara fruit juice concentration added had shown significant () enhancement on total phenol content and sensory values of the final wine. The results can be used for large-scale wine production in order to reduce its postharvest losses.
Concentrations of Metals in Tissues of Cockle Anadara granosa (Linnaeus, 1758) from East Java Coast, Indonesia, and Potential Risks to Human Health
This study reports the presence of Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, Cu, and Cr in the cockles (Anadara granosa, Linnaeus, 1758) harvested along the East Java Coast, Indonesia. The concentrations of metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrometer and expressed in mg kg-1 wet weight. The concentrations of metals ranged from 0.11 to 0.82 mg kg−1 for Cd, 0.10 to 0.54 mg kg−1 for Pb, 10.22 to 19.04 mg kg−1 for Zn, 0.02 to 1.47 mg kg−1 for Hg, 1.79 to 4.76 mg kg−1 for Cu, and 1.64 to 3.79 mg kg−1 for Cr. The metal concentrations in the whole tissues of cockles were in the order Zn>Cu>Cr>Hg>Cd>Pb. The Cd and Pb levels in cockles were found to be higher than the permissible limit for human consumption according to EC and FAO; the levels of Hg exceeded the EC, Hong Kong, Australia, and Indonesia standards; and the levels of Cr exceeded the Hong Kong standard. The estimated weekly intake (EWI) of cockles indicates that the concentrations of Cd and Hg in the cockle tissues from Gresik were higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI); meanwhile, the concentrations of Cr of cockles from all locations were higher than and close to the PTWI. The THQ values for Cd at Gresik, for Hg at Gresik, Surabaya, and Pasuruan, and for Cr at all locations were higher than one indicating that these metals pose potential noncarcinogenic effects to consumers. Reducing the consumption of cockles should be done in order to minimize the adverse effects of metals especially Cd, Hg, and Cr to human health.
The Impact of Food Service Attributes on Customer Satisfaction in a Rural University Campus Environment
The purpose of this study was to determine different food service attributes that have an impact on customers’ overall satisfaction at a rural university cafeteria. Over 5 weeks, 676 cafeteria users, including academics, staff, and students, were selected through convenience sampling. They completed an anonymous-designed survey with closed questions () assessing quality of food and beverages, quality of service and setting, and satisfaction with food service attributes. In order to measure the existence and degree of significant relationships between different research variables, Pearson correlation coefficients were employed to analyse the data. Means of scores and frequencies were calculated. Results indicated that customers’ satisfaction with different service attributes was above average. All service attributes had a significant and positive effect on the overall satisfaction. Since most customers (62.9%) would like to continue eating at the cafeteria, the most common improvements suggested to the university management included among others, improving diet quality by offering more nutritious food. Gaining insight into the different food service attributes can enable the university management to meet the needs and expectations of its academics, staff, and students in order to increase their confidence in the food provided.
Microbiological Safety of Leafy Vegetables Produced at Houeyiho and Sèmè-Kpodji Vegetable Farms in Southern Benin: Risk Factors for Campylobacter spp.
Foodborne infections, mainly those attributable to Campylobacter, are one of the most common causes of intestinal diseases, of bacterial origin in humans. Although the vehicle of transmission is not always identified, the most common vehicles are poultry, poultry products, and contaminated water. In Southern Benin, an excessive use of poultry manure as fertilizer in vegetable farms was noted. This survey aimed to determine the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, in selected environmental samples (poultry manure, and irrigation water) and freshly harvested leafy vegetables in two (Houeyiho and Sèmè-Kpodji) vegetable farms in southern Benin. To achieve this objective, we analyzed 280 samples, including 224 samples of leafy vegetables (Solanum macrocarpon and Lactuca sativa capita), 28 samples of irrigation water, and 28 samples of poultry manure. The analysis of the samples taken was carried out according to the modified NF EN ISO 10272-1 standard. Of the 280 samples analyzed in this survey, 63 were positive for Campylobacter contamination. For leafy vegetable samples analyzed in this survey, the contamination rate was of 15.63%. 60.71% of poultry manure samples analyzed were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. and 39.29% of irrigation water samples were contaminated. The statistical analysis of these results showed that there is a correlation between the contamination of leafy vegetables, poultry manure, and irrigations (). Campylobacter jejuni (53.97%) was more involved in contaminations than Campylobacter coli (36.57%). This study has shown that there is a real risk of food poisoning by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among consumers of leafy vegetables in southern Benin. The origin of contamination of these leafy vegetables is poultry manure used as fertilizer in vegetable gardens and irrigation water used.
Effect of HTST Thermal Treatments on End-Use Quality Characteristics of Goat Milk
Goat milk samples were pasteurized at high-temperature (72°C, 75°C, and 81°C) and in short-time (15 s and 25 s) combinations. Physical, chemical and microbial qualities of the pasteurized milk samples were evaluated 0, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of storage at 4°C. Despite the different thermal treatments, specific-gravity and viscosity were comparatively stable immediately after pasteurization (IAP). The viscosity of pasteurized milk at 81°C showed significant increase () from 1.58 ± 0.18 to 2.30 ± 0.15 mPa s during four weeks of storage. Relative lightness “L” value decreased by about 10% during the storage period of 81°C pasteurization samples. Acidity increased with heat treatment irrespective of holding time, but in 81°C pasteurized sample higher acidity was developed at end of the storage. Fat oxidation 2-3 times higher at 81°C than 72°C pasteurized samples. Total protein (TP%) and nonprotein nitrogen contents were stable IAP but TP reduced significantly () at two weeks storage. The whey protein denaturation increased with pasteurization treatments and storage time. Antioxidant activity of raw goat milk was 34.8 ± 5.01 μmol l−1 and was decreased by 20–43% IAP compared to raw milk samples, but gradually increased during storage. IAP, mesophilic counts were in the range of 980–110 cfu ml−1 (72°C/15–81°C/25 s) and increased from 2236 to 680 cfu ml−1 samples stored at 4 weeks. Results showed that best quality stability of pasteurized goat milk achieved by heat treatments between 72°C/25 s and 75°C/25 s heat treatments up to 3 weeks of storage under 4°C.
Development of Pasta Products with Nonconventional Ingredients and Their Effect on Selected Quality Characteristics: A Brief Overview
Pasta is a widely consumed food in all over the world. Coarse semolina obtained from durum wheat and water are the main ingredients of conventional pasta products. The amount of gluten and quality level of durum wheat, are two important factors for the superiority of finished pasta. Market price of durum wheat is higher than the common wheat and it contributes no more than 5% of the world wheat production. Thus, to come across the challenge of emerging pasta consumption, new field of research that is dealing with the incorporation of nonconventional ingredients to the conventional formula of pasta has initiated. The compositions of raw materials which are used for pasta preparation directly affect the physical, chemical, and textural properties of the product. Therefore, incorporation of nonconventional ingredients can lead to a contradictory effect of pasta quality. This review will focus on the various types of nonconventional ingredients that are being incorporated in pasta products and their effect on the quality attributes of different pasta products.