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International Journal of Vascular Medicine publishes articles focusing on vascular biology and physiology, vascular imaging, endovascular intervention, as well as prevention and treatment of vascular disease.
International Journal of Vascular Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Effects of Vitamin C on the Prevention of Ischemia-Reperfusion Brain Injury: Experimental Study in Rats
Background. Reperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy is a complication associated with cerebrovascular self-regulation in a chronically hypoperfused cerebral hemisphere, leading to severe neurological damage. Vitamin C is an important antioxidant in brain metabolism that has shown some neuroprotective actions. Objective. To investigate the potential effects of vitamin C on cerebral reperfusion in comparison with placebo (saline) in rats. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: (i) Sham (), animals exposed to carotid arteries dissection without clamping; (ii) Control (), animals that received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% saline solution (0.1 mL/kg) and underwent carotid arteries dissection with temporary clamping; (iii) Vitamin C (), animals that received an intraperitoneal injection of vitamin C (750 mg/kg) and underwent carotid arteries dissection with temporary clamping. Behavioral assessment was then performed in all groups, which included the open field, Morris water maze and rotarod tests. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the hippocampus and striatum were measured using a fluorometric assay. Results. Rats treated with vitamin C presented with a similar behavior as compared to the Sham group in all the three tests (), but it was significantly different from controls (). Vitamin C was also found to reduce MDA levels in both hippocampus and striatum when compared to placebo (). Conclusion. In the present study, vitamin C was associated with behavioral and motor preservation as well as decreased cerebral MDA levels after induced cerebral ischemia in rats.
Short Term Outcome of Adjunct Foam Sclerotherapy for Varicose Veins in Patients Subjected to RFA at Dhulikhel Hospital, Nepal
Background. Varicose veins are dilated, tortuous, superficial veins usually seen on lower limbs. Various surgical modalities are available for varicose veins including open surgery (Trendelenburg operation), Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA), Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) and Sclerotherapy. The aim of this study is to look for the outcome of adjunct sclerotherapy for varicose veins done as an adjunct with Radio Frequency Ablation. Objective. To know the possible outcome regarding benefits and complications of adjunct sclerotherapy with Radio Frequency Ablation. Methodology. We combined Radio Frequency Ablation of varicose veins with necessary phlebectomy and perforator ligation and performed adjunct sclerotherapy for residual significant varicosities with polidocanol (2%) mixed with 2 ml NS and 2 cc of air (Tessari method) to patients undergoing varicose vein surgery in between 2016 and 2017. Records on complications were enquired immediately following surgery and on 1st follow up done within 3–5 days of the procedure. Results. Among 256 limbs subjected to varicose veins surgery 51 limbs were given adjunct sclerotherapy. Among them, five limbs had perivenous spillage with some localized swelling while there was allergic reaction in one patient as immediate postprocedural complication. Nine limbs had painful thrombosed veins during early follow-up. Conclusions. Adjunct sclerotherapy showed complication rate of roughly one tenth and one fifth of the treated cases in immediate and early postoperative follow-up.
Effect of Transcriptional Regulator ID3 on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be discovered in patients who have a loss of function mutation of activin A receptor-like type 1 (ACVRL1) gene, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 1 receptor. Additionally, ACVRL1 mutations can lead to hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber disease, an autosomal dominant inherited disease that results in mucocutaneous telangiectasia and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Transcriptional regulator Inhibitor of DNA-Binding/Differentiation-3 (ID3) has been demonstrated to be involved in both PAH and HTT; however, the role of its overlapping molecular mechanistic effects has yet to be seen. This review will focus on the existing understanding of how ID3 may contribute to molecular involvement and perturbations thus altering both PAH and HHT outcomes. Improved understanding of how ID3 mediates these pathways will likely provide knowledge in the inhibition and regulation of these diseases through targeted therapies.
The Clinical Rationale for the Sentry Bioconvertible Inferior Vena Cava Filter for the Prevention of Pulmonary Embolism
The Sentry inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is designed to provide temporary protection against pulmonary embolism (PE) during transient high-risk periods and then to bioconvert after 60 days after implantation. At the time of bioconversion, the device’s nitinol arms retract from the filtering position into the caval wall. Subsequently, the stable stent-like nitinol frame is endothelialized. The Sentry bioconvertible IVC filter has been evaluated in a multicenter investigational-device-exemption pivotal trial (NCT01975090) of 129 patients with documented deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or PE, or at temporary risk of developing DVT or PE, and with contraindications to anticoagulation. Successful filter conversion was observed in 95.7% of patients at 6 months (110/115) and 96.4% at 12 months (106/110). Through 12 months, there were no cases of symptomatic PE. The rationale for development of the Sentry bioconvertible device includes the following considerations: (1) the period of highest risk of PE for the vast majority of patients occurs within the first 60 days after an index event, with most of the PEs occurring in the first 30 days; (2) the design of retrievable IVC filters to support their removal after a transitory high-PE-risk period has, in practice, been associated with insecure filter dynamics and time-dependent complications including tilting, fracture, embolization, migration, and IVC perforation; (3) most retrievable IVC filters are placed for temporary protection, but for a variety of reasons they are not removed in any more than half of implanted patients, and when removal is attempted, the procedure is not always successful even with advanced techniques; and (4) analysis of Medicare hospital data suggests that payment for the retrieval procedure does not routinely compensate for expense. The Sentry device is not intended for removal after bioconversion. In initial clinical use, complications have been limited. Long-term results for the Sentry bioconvertible IVC filter are anticipated soon.
Evaluation of Arterial Stiffness Using Pulse Wave Velocity and Augmentation Index in Patients with Chronic Venous Insufficiency
Background and Objectives. Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a common pathology of the circulatory system and is associated with a high morbidity for the patients and causes high costs for the healthcare systems. Arterial stiffness has been shown to be a predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. The relationship between CVI and arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (Aix) was evaluated in this study. Methods. Sixty-two patients with the stage of C3-C5 chronic venous disease (CVD) and 48 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. To assess arterial stiffness, all cases were evaluated with I.E.M. Mobil-O-Graph brand ambulatory blood pressure monitor device. PWV and Aix were used to assess arterial stiffness in this study. Results. The mean age was 61.9±11.05 years and 54 % of the patient population was females. PWV and Aix were significantly higher in CVI patients than controls (8.92±1.65 vs. 8.03±1.43, p=0.001; 25.51±8.14 vs. 20.15±9.49, p=0.003, respectively) and also positive linear correlation was observed between CVI and all measured arterial stiffness parameters (r=0.675 for CVI and PWV, r=0.659 for CVI and Aix, respectively). A PWV value of > 9.2 has 88.9 % sensitivity and 71.4 % specificity to predict the presence of CVI. Conclusions. PWV and Aix are the most commonly used, easy, reproducible, reliable methods in the clinic to assess arterial stiffness. Logistic regression analysis showed that PWV and Aix were the independent predictors of CVI. PWV has the sensitivity of 88.9 % and specificity of 71.4 % to detect the presence of CVI.
Comparative Study of Protein Expression Levels of Five Plaque Biomarkers and Relation with Carotid Plaque Type Classification in Patients after Carotid Endarterectomy
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process resulting in local plaque deposition in the vessel wall of arteries with symptoms to various areas of vascular tree. Identification of patients with progressive advanced atherosclerotic disease is mainly based on the known characteristics of the vulnerable or recently ruptured plaque. Molecular and cellular features associated with the vulnerable plaque are considered potential diagnostic markers for plaque rupture and thrombosis. Here, protein expression levels of the metalloproteases MMP-1, MMP-9, osteopontin (OPN), and cytokines TNFα and IL-6 in tissue extracts of carotid plaques in patients after endarterectomy were estimated by Western immunoblotting, after SDS-PAGE analysis and evaluated based on the ultrasonographic plaque morphology. The gender and age effect was also examined. MMP-1, MMP-9, and IL-6 were expressed in higher levels compared to OPN and TNFa as well as in symptomatic (with type II and III carotid plaque classification) than asymptomatic (type IV) patients with differences considered statistically significant (P values <0.05). A significant positive correlation between MMP-1 and IL-6 (with Pearson correlation coefficient 0.748) is also notable. The data give further insight into the possible role of specific biomarker and enhance the need for further studies in order to clarify the proper one(s) for detection of the vulnerable plaque and help identify patients at risk for cardiovascular events.