Candidates of endogenous antiangiogenic factors as therapeutic agents for diabetic nephropathy.
Effect on ECs
Soluble form of VEGFR-1 that binds to circulating VEGF and prevents it from binding to VEGFR-2.
Inhibitory VEGF-A splice variant which induces insufficient phosphorylation of VEGFR-2.
Protein fragment cleaved from type IV collagen that binds to endothelium via integrin and inhibits protein synthesis.
Protein fragment cleaved from type XVIII collagen which acts on endothelium to suppress cell cycle genes and antiapoptotic genes.
α5β1-integrin (glypicans, VEGFR-2)
Available in China
Protein fragment cleaved from plasminogen which binds to potentially many proteins to induce its apoptosis.
Endothelium-derived protein that causes negative feedback response in endothelial cells stimulated by VEGF-A and promotes its survival by inducing SOD2 and Sirt1.
ECs, endothelial cells; sFlt-1, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGFR-2, VEGF receptor-2; SOD2, superoxide dismutase-2; Sirt1, sirtuin-1. -A165b may attenuate endothelial survival effect of VEGF-A165, but endothelial protective effect was also reported (see text). representative molecules include surface ATP synthase, NG2 proteoglycan, c-Met, and annexin II.
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