Teenage Pregnancy and Its Adverse Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes at Lemlem Karl Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2018Read the full article
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Exploring the Key Genes and Pathways in the Formation of Corneal Scar Using Bioinformatics Analysis
The Corneal wound healing results in the formation of opaque corneal scar. In fact, millions of people around the world suffer from corneal scars, leading to loss of vision. This study aimed to identify the key changes of gene expression in the formation of opaque corneal scar and provided potential biomarker candidates for clinical treatment and drug target discovery. We downloaded Gene expression dataset GSE6676 from NCBI-GEO, and analyzed the Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs), Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment pathway analyses, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. A total of 1377 differentially expressed genes were identified and the result of Functional enrichment analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) identification and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were performed. In total, 7 hub genes IL6 (interleukin-6), MMP9 (matrix metallopeptidase 9), CXCL10 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10), MAPK8 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8), TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4), HGF (hepatocyte growth factor), EDN1 (endothelin 1) were selected. In conclusion, the DEGS, Hub genes and signal pathways identified in this study can help us understand the molecular mechanism of corneal scar formation and provide candidate targets for the diagnosis and treatment of corneal scar.
Oscillometrically Measured Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity Reveals Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged, Apparently Healthy Population
Background. Asymptomatic atherosclerosis is a common entity even at young age. Studies have suggested a strong relationship between increased arterial stiffness and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis (ACA) in general population, particularly in those with high cardiovascular risk, but no data exist from a younger population free from recognized cardiovascular disease. Hypothesis. We hypothesized there is an association between ACA and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao) in middle-aged, apparently healthy, normotensive population to reveal increased cardiovascular risk. Methods. We examined the relationship between ACA and PWVao in 236 apparently healthy, asymptomatic, normotensive, middle-aged subjects (age 47 ± 8 years; 52% women). PWVao was measured with the oscillometric method (Arteriograph). ACA was assessed by carotid artery ultrasonography. Results. ACA was present in 51 subjects. Subjects with ACA were older (), more likely to be smokers (), and had higher systolic blood pressure (SBP, 128 ± 9 vs. 125 ± 10 mmHg, ) and PWVao (9.3 ± 1.6 vs. 7.9 ± 1.3 m/s, ) than subjects without ACA. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis, only PWVao (odds ratio: 1.88, ), smoking habit (odds ratio 3.79, ), systolic blood pressure (odds ratio 1.05, ), and diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio: 0.94, ) were independently associated with ACA. PWVao >8.3 m/s identified ACA with a 71% sensitivity, 65% specificity, 36% positive and 89% negative predictive value, 2.04 relative risk, and 4.54 odds ratio, respectively. Conclusions. PWVao measured by the Arteriograph proved to be an independent marker of ACA. Our study may reveal high CV risk, detected as increased PWVao, which according to our study is related in a very high probability to asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis in apparently healthy, young, and middle-aged subjects.
Optimal Growth Temperature and Intergenic Distances in Bacteria, Archaea, and Plastids of Rhodophytic Branch
The lengths of intergenic regions between neighboring genes that are convergent, divergent, or unidirectional were calculated for plastids of the rhodophytic branch and complete archaeal and bacterial genomes. Statistically significant linear relationships between any pair of the medians of these three length types have been revealed in each genomic group. Exponential relationships between the optimal growth temperature and each of the three medians have been revealed as well. The leading coefficients of the regression equations relating all pairs of the medians as well as temperature and any of the medians have the same sign and order of magnitude. The results obtained for plastids, archaea, and bacteria are also similar at the qualitative level. For instance, the medians are always low at high temperatures. At low temperatures, the medians tend to statistically significant greater values and scattering. The original model was used to test our hypothesis that the intergenic distances are optimized in particular to decrease the competition of RNA polymerases within the locus that results in transcribing shortened RNAs. Overall, this points to an effect of temperature for both remote and close genomes.
Epidural Labor Analgesia Is Associated with a Decreased Risk of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in Trial of Labor after Cesarean: A Multicenter, Prospective Cohort Study
Postpartum depression is a disabling mental disorder commonly seen in parturients under trial of labor after cesarean, which causes serious harm to the parturients. The etiology is unclear. We hypothesized that epidural labor analgesia can reduce the incidence rate of postpartum depression. Enrolled multiparas were divided into the epidural labor analgesia group (n = 263) or nonanalgesia group (n = 160) according to their own request. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess their mental status at 48 hours and 42 days after delivery. Relative perinatal variables were collected and further analyzed using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the relation of epidural analgesia with the occurrence of postpartum depression under trial of labor after cesarean. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score 48 hours ≥ 10 in the no epidural analgesia group was 26.42% while the epidural analgesia group was 8.49% (OR, 0.209; 95% CI, 0.096–0.429; ). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score 42 day ≥ 10 in the no epidural analgesia group was 25.16% while the epidural analgesia group was 6.59% (OR, 0.235; 95% CI, 0.113–0.469; ). The incidence of postpartum depression was significantly lower in the epidural labor analgesia group at 48 hours and 42 days. There was also a significant relation between the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores at 48 hours and 42 days after delivery. Epidural analgesia, discomfort within 42 days, and self-rating anxiety scale are independent predictors of postpartum depression for trial of labor after cesarean in 42 days. Epidural labor analgesia is associated with a decreased risk of postpartum depression. Further study with a large sample size and more centers is needed to evaluate the impact of epidural analgesia on the occurrence of postpartum depression. Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR-ONC-17010654.
Physical Fitness with Regular Lifestyle Is Positively Related to Academic Performance among Chinese Medical and Dental Students
Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical fitness, lifestyle, and academic performance of Chinese college students and investigate the differences among medical and dental students on their lifestyle. Methods. This study was conducted with 316 students enrolled from 2012 to 2014 at Tongji University. Scores from the college physical test were used to represent the students’ physical fitness condition. Lifestyle was measured by some variables extracted from the students’ behavior data provided by the university’s information center. Academic performance was measured by the average score of basic courses and the average score of professional courses. Demographic information, including age, gender, nation, and family background, was also obtained. Separate multiple linear regression analysis was performed for modeling academic performance and physical fitness with a value threshold of 0.05. Results. A total of 212 (45.97% females) medical students and 104 (58.65% females) dental students participated in this study. Physical fitness score (medical: r = 0.34, ; dental: r = 0.47, ), library visiting frequency (medical: r = 0.30, ; dental: r = 0.62, ), number of books borrowed (medical: r = 0.19, ; dental: r = 0.37, ), frequency of waking up early (medical: r = 0.29, ; dental: r = −0.30, ), and times of eating breakfast (medical: r = 0.49, ; dental: r = 0.47, ) were all significantly associated with academic performance. Library visiting frequency (medical: r = 0.26, ; dental: r = 0.41, ) and eating frequency (medical: r = 0.48, ; dental: r = 0.42, ) were also closely related with physical fitness. Conclusion. Physical fitness, library usage, and the regularity of lifestyle are significant contributors to academic performance among Chinese medical and dental students. Moreover, medical students are shown to have less rest time compared to dental students.
The Biomarkers for Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure
The use of a large number of cardiovascular biomarkers, meant to complement the use of the electrocardiogram, echocardiography cardiac imaging, and clinical symptom assessment, has become a routine in clinical diagnosis, differential diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognosis and guides the management of patients with suspected cardiovascular diseases. There is a broad consensus that cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptides are the preferred biomarkers in clinical practice for the diagnosis of the acute coronary syndrome and heart failure, respectively, while the roles and possible clinical applications of several other potential biomarkers are still under study. This review mainly focuses on the recent studies of the roles and clinical applications of troponin and natriuretic peptides, which seem to be the best-validated markers in distinguishing and predicting the future cardiac events of patients with suspected cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, the review briefly discusses some of the large number of potential markers that may play a more prominent role in the future.