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Effects of Eplerenone on Blood Pressure and Echocardiographic and Serum Biochemical Variables in Five Healthy Dogs: A Pilot Study
Eplerenone (EP), an aldosterone antagonist, is reported to produce renal and cardiac protective effects in noncanine species. However, there are no detailed reports available on cardiovascular effects of EP in dogs. This study aimed to determine effect of EP on echocardiographic parameters, blood pressures, and biochemical variables in healthy dogs. Five healthy Beagle dogs were randomly divided and repeatedly used in each of 3 dose groups, receiving 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg BW EP orally q24 h for 4 wks. Serum biochemical test, blood pressure, and Doppler echocardiography measurements were performed before EP administration and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after EP administration. Treatment with EP reduced mean blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner and significantly (but in a dose-independent manner) decreased left atrium/aorta ratio, early diastolic transmitral flow, early diastolic transmitral flow/late diastolic transmitral flow, peak velocity of early diastolic transmitral flow/peak velocity of early diastolic mitral annular motion, left ventricle and right ventricle Tei indices, stroke volume, cardiac output, and mid systole myocardial velocity gradient 1 to 4 weeks after administration. Deceleration time of early diastolic transmitral flow significantly increased after EP administration. No significant changes were observed in serum biochemical variables. The results indicated that EP might reduce preload, thereby decreasing left atrial size. In addition, reduction of left ventricular stiffness may have theoretically taken place but this could not be tested using the present study design. It is suggested that EP administration within the dose range used in this study is safe for administration to healthy dogs. Further studies are needed to explore both safety and efficacy, as well as to seek a recommended dose range of EP treatment in client-owned dogs with heart disease.
Prevalence of Poultry Coccidiosis and Associated Risk Factors in Intensive Farming System of Gondar Town, Ethiopia
A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to April 2019 in Gondar town, Ethiopia, with the objectives to determine the prevalence of coccidiosis and to assess the associated risk factors. The floatation technique was used for isolation of coccidian oocysts obtained from 384 fecal samples of chicken, and the prevalence revealed was 42.2%. The result showed 43.6% of male and 41.2% female chickens found infected with Eimeria. From the examined chickens, higher degree of infection was observed in the younger age group (51.0%) than adult chickens (36.7%). The difference was statistically significant (). The study showed relatively higher prevalence in poor body condition chickens (72.6%) than medium (36.1%) and good body condition (30.5%) with statistically significant difference (). The result also showed higher prevalence of coccidiosis in the floor system (50.4%) than in the cage system (19.0%), and the difference was statistically significant (). The prevalence based on the management system was 63.7%, 39.4%, and 29.3% in poor, medium, and good management, respectively. Significant difference was seen in the prevalence of poultry coccidiosis, between poorly and properly managed chickens (). In addition, the study reported 46.1%, 36.7%, and 26.3% prevalence in Bovan Brown, White Leg Horn, and Rhode Red Island chicken breeds, respectively. Coccidiosis is a major problem in the farm with inadequate hygienic measures and factors such as age, breed, body conditions, and biosecurity which are the most common factors that contribute for the occurrence of coccidiosis. Therefore, appropriate control strategies should be designed considering important risk factors such as, breed, age, management system, and housing system. Especially, focus should be given to biosecurity practices in the prevention and control of coccidiosis, and in addition, further studies are needed to be conducted to identify the prevalent Eimeria species for strategic control.
Comparative Evaluation of T-Cell Immune Response to BTV Infection in Sheep Vaccinated with Pentavalent BTV Vaccine When Compared to Un-Vaccinated Animals
Recent invasion of multiple bluetongue virus serotypes (BTV) in different regions of the world necessitates urgent development of efficient vaccine that is directed against multiple BTV serotypes. In this experimental study, cell mediated immune response and protective efficacy of binary ethylenimine (BEI) inactivated Montanide™ ISA 206 adjuvanted pentavalent (BTV-1, 2, 10, 16 and 23) vaccine was evaluated in sheep and direct challenge with homologous BTV serotypes in their respective group. Significant () up-regulation of mRNA transcripts of IFN-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α in PBMCs of vaccinated animals as compared to control (un-vaccinated) animals at certain time points was observed. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in mean ± SD percentage of CD8+ T cells after 7 days post challenge (DPC) but, the mean ± SD percentage of CD4+ T-cell population slightly declined at 7 DPC and enhanced after 14 DPC. Significant differences () of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells population was also observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated sheep. The vaccine also significantly () reduced BTV RNA load in PBMCs of vaccinated animals than unvaccinated animals following challenge. There were no significant difference () in cytokine induction, BTV RNA load and CD8+ and CD4+ cell count among BTV-1, 2, 10, 16 and 23 serotype challenges except significant increase in mean ± SD percentage of CD8+ in BTV-2 group. These findings put forwarded that binary ethylenimine inactivated montanide adjuvanted pentavalent bluetongue vaccine has stimulated cell mediated immune response and most importantly reduced the severity of BTV-1, 2, 10, 16 and 23 infections following challenge in respective group.
Seroprevalence of Canine Ehrlichiosis and Microscopic Screening for Canine Babesiosis in Dogs in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2016-2017
A cross-sectional study was done to determine ehrlichiosis seroprevalence and babesiosis prevalence in dogs that were presented to selected veterinary clinics in Harare. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while microscopy of peripheral blood smears was used to confirm babesiosis. Overall, 75.2% (88/117, 95% CI: 66.2–82.5) of sera samples tested were positive to Ehrlichia spp. antibodies while the prevalence of canine babesiosis was 47.9% (56/117, 95% CI: 38.6–57.3). Age, breed, and sex were found not to be associated with the two disease conditions . Most of the dogs with babesiosis (82.1%, 46/56) were also positive to Ehrlichia spp. antibodies. Hypoalbuminaemia (53.8%, 63/117), anaemia (53.0%, 62/117) and thrombocytopaenia (40.2%, 47/117) were the most common laboratory findings. Thrombocytopaenia and hypoalbuminaemia was more pronounced in dogs with babesiosis only while anaemia was more marked in dogs with babesiosis and positive to Ehrlichia spp. antibodies.
Prevalence of Bovine Fasciolosis and Its Economic Loss due to Liver Condemnation at Wolaita Sodo Municipal Abattair, Ethiopia
Fasciolosis is a serious animal health problem in Ethiopia where cattle raising is very important to the local economy. A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2018 to February 2019 to estimate the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and its associated risk factors as well as financial losses due to liver condemnation. A total of 247 cattle consisting of 219 males and 28 females were randomly selected and fecal sample collection for Fasciola egg detection and postmortem liver inspection for adult liver flukes, were done. From the total of 247 cattle examined, the overall prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in the study area was 16.6% and 20.24% by coprological and postmortem examinations, respectively. The livers and bile ducts were examined for the adult flukes and the result showed that F. hepatica was frequently detected Fasciola sp. (72%) than F. gigantica (28%). In the study area, the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis between sex was significantly different with higher prevalence was recorded in female (57.1%) than male (15.5%). There was also significant association among different age groups for the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis with the highest prevalence in older (40.1%) than younger (18.8%) age groups. But, regarding origin and body condition the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis was not significantly associated . The annual direct financial losses incurred due to fasciolosis were estimated around 1,505, 856 ETB ($43, 024.458). In conclusion, bovine fasciolosis is prevalent and economically important disease in the study area. Therefore, implementation of control and prevention strategy like, grazing managements, reducing the population of the intermediate host, diagnosis and treating sick animals using anthelmintic, is mandatory.
The Role of Antioxidant Activity of Chitosan-Pinus merkusii Extract Nanoparticle in against Lead Acetate-Induced Toxicity in Rat Pancreas
Lead is one of the heavy metals with oxidative stress that causes toxicity in human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Chitosan-Pinus merkusii extract nanoparticle on lead acetate-induced toxicity in rat pancreas. Chitosan-Pinus merkusii nanoparticles were identified by Particle Size Analysis (PSA) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The male rats used were divided into a control group (treated with distilled water), lead acetate group (injected with lead acetate at 20 mg/kg BW i.p), and the treatment group (treated orally with Chitosan-Pinus merkusii nanoparticle at 150 mg; 300 mg; 600 mg/kg BW and injected with lead acetate at 20 mg/kg BW i.p). Blood samples were taken to measure glucose and insulin level. The pancreas tissues were also collected to evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and histological evaluations of cell damage. The PSA showed that the size of Chitosan-Pinus merkusii nanoparticle was 530.2 ± 38.27 nm. The SEM images revealed an irregular shape, and the morphology showed a rough surface. Administration of lead acetate resulted in a significant increase in glucose and MDA levels as well as a decrease in the level of insulin, SOD and GPx when compared with the control group, while that of 600 mg/kg BW of Chitosan-Pinus merkusii nanoparticle gave a polar result. The lead acetate induced loss of pancreatic cells normal structure and necrosis, while Chitosan-Pinus merkusii nanoparticle inhibited it. It could be concluded that Chitosan-Pinus merkusii nanoparticle has a potential to be a powerful agent and may be useful as an antioxidant against free radical-induced oxidative stress and pancreatic cell damage mediated by lead acetate intoxication.