Radiomics and Machine Learning Differentiate Soft-Tissue Lipoma and Liposarcoma Better than Musculoskeletal RadiologistsRead the full article
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Optimization of the Therapeutic Approach to Patients with Sarcoma: Delphi Consensus
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) constitute a heterogeneous group of rare solid tumors associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The evaluation and treatment of STS require a multidisciplinary team with extensive experience in the management of these types of tumors. National and international clinical practice guidelines for STS do not always provide answers to a great many situations that specialists have to contend with in their everyday practice. This consensus provides a series of specific recommendations based on available scientific evidence and the experience of a group of experts to assist in decision-making by all the specialists involved in the management of STS.
Prognostic Factors in Dedifferentiated Chondrosarcoma: A Retrospective Analysis of a Large Series Treated at a Single Institution
Background. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas (DDCSs) are highly malignant tumors with a dismal prognosis and present a significant challenge in clinical management. Methods. In an IRB approved retrospective protocol, we identified 72 patients with DDCS treated at our institution between 1993 and 2017 and reviewed clinicopathological characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes to analyze prognostic factors. Results. Femur (44.4%), pelvis (22.2%), and humerus (12.5%) were most commonly involved sites. Twenty-three patients (31.9%) presented with distant metastasis, and 3 (4.2%) of them also had regional lymph node involvement. The median overall survival (OS) was 13.9 months. On multivariate analysis, pathological fracture, larger tumor size, lymph node involvement, metastasis at diagnosis, extraosseous extension, and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma component correlated with worse OS, whereas surgical resection and chemotherapy were associated with improved OS. For progression-free survival (PFS), pathological fracture and metastasis at diagnosis showed increased risk, while chemotherapy was associated with decreased risk. Among patients who received chemotherapy, doxorubicin and cisplatin were significantly associated with improved PFS but not OS. Among patients without metastasis at diagnosis, 17 (34.7%) developed local recurrence. Thirty-one (63.3%) developed distant metastases at a median interval of 18.1 months. On multivariate analysis, R1/R2 resection was related with local recurrence, while macroscopic dedifferentiated component was associated with distant metastasis. Conclusions. The prognosis of DDCS is poor. Complete resection remains a significant prognostic factor for local control. Chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cisplatin seems to have better PFS. More prognostic, multicenter trials are warranted to further explore the effectiveness of chemotherapy in selected DDCS patients.
Comparison of MRI and Histopathology with regard to Intramedullary Extent of Disease in Bone Sarcomas
In today’s era, limb salvage surgery is the procedure of choice and current standard of care in appropriately selected patients of bone sarcomas. For adequate oncologic clearance, preoperative evaluation of the extent of tumor is mandatory. The present study was done to compare measurements of bone sarcomas (osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma) as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the histopathological extent seen on resected specimens. We prospectively evaluated 100 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of bone sarcoma who underwent limb salvage surgery between May 2014 and December 2014. The maximum longitudinal (cranio-caudal) dimension of tumor on the noncontrast T1-WI sequence of MRI (irrespective of whether it was pre/postchemotherapy) was compared with the gross dimensions of the tumor on histopathology. The arithmetic mean difference, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Spearman’s correlation analysis were used to test the differences and correlation between groups. Mean tumor size on MRI based on the largest extent on MRI was 12.1 ± 4.85 cm (mean ± standard deviation), while it was 10.77 ± 4.6 cm (mean ± standard deviation) on histopathology. In 79 cases, MRI overestimated the extent of disease; the mean was 1.79 cm with a standard deviation of 1.56 cm. When the disease extent was underestimated on MRI (13 cases), the mean was 0.58 cm with a standard deviation of 0.43 cm. In 8 cases (osteosarcoma (7), Ewing’s sarcoma (1)), MRI measurement was equal to histopathology. The Spearman correlation analysis showed a high correlation of tumor length on histopathology with the MRI for all patients (R = 0.948, ). We thus conclude that MRI is accurate in delineating the extent of bone sarcomas. A margin of 2 cm from the maximum tumor extent is adequate to ensure appropriate surgical resection.
Efficacy and Safety of Nanosomal Docetaxel Lipid Suspension-Based Chemotherapy in Sarcoma: A Multicenter, Retrospective Study
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nanosomal docetaxel lipid suspension (NDLS, DoceAqualip) based chemotherapy in patients with sarcoma. Methods. In this retrospective, multicenter (6 centers), observational study, we analyzed the medical charts of adult patients of either sex, who were treated with NDLS (75 mg/m2 in 3-weekly cycles) based chemotherapy for the treatment of sarcoma. The efficacy outcomes were overall response rate (ORR: complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)) and disease control rate (DCR: CR + PR + stable disease (SD)) in patients who received NDLS-based chemotherapy in neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. Overall survival (OS) and safety were evaluated for all settings. Results. Of 11 patients (neoadjuvant: 1, adjuvant: 3, and metastatic: 7) in this study, majority had leiomyosarcoma (63.6%, 7/11) followed by extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC), high grade pleomorphic sarcoma of mandible, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of right thigh, and osteosarcoma of femur (9.1% each, 1/11 each). NDLS plus gemcitabine combination was used in 10 patients (90.9%), and NDLS plus cyclophosphamide was used in one patient with EMC (9.1%). Efficacy evaluation was performed for 7 patients (neoadjuvant: 1/1; metastatic: 6/7). Complete response was reported in one patient (soft tissue sarcoma of mandible) treated in neoadjuvant setting. In metastatic setting, ORR was 50% and DCR was 66.7% (CR: 16.7% (1/6), PR: 33.3% (2/6), SD: 16.7% (1/6)). At a median follow-up of 6.5 months (range: 0.06–20.2 months), median OS was not reached in neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings, but it was 15.8 months in metastatic setting. At least 1 AE was reported in 7 (63.6%) patients. Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and anemia were the hematological AEs, whereas nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were the most common nonhematological AEs. NDLS treatment was well tolerated without any new safety concerns. Conclusion. Nanosomal docetaxel lipid suspension-based chemotherapy was efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of sarcoma. Further prospective trials are needed to confirm the data.
Revisiting the Role of Radiation Therapy in Chondrosarcoma: A National Cancer Database Study
Background. Although chondrosarcomas (CS) are mostly considered radioresistant, advancements in radiotherapy have brought attention to its use in these patients. Using the largest registry of primary bone tumors, the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we sought to better characterize the current use of radiotherapy in CS patients and identify any potential survival benefit with higher radiation doses and advanced radiation therapies. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed CS patients in the NCDB from 2004 to 2015 who underwent radiotherapy. The Kaplan–Meier method with statistical comparisons was used to identify which individual variables related to dosage and delivery modality were associated with improved 5-year survival rates. Multivariate proportional hazards analyses were performed to determine independent predictors of survival. Results. Of 5,427 patients with a histologic diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, 680 received a form of radiation therapy (13%). The multivariate proportional hazards analysis controlling for various patient, tumor, and treatment variables, including RT dose and modality, demonstrated that while overall radiation therapy (RT) was not associated with improved survival (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.76–1.20), when examining just the patient cohort with positive surgical margins, RT trended towards improved survival (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.58–1.13). When comparing advanced and conventional RT modalities, advanced RT was associated with significantly decreased mortality (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38–0.80). However, advanced modality and high-dose RT both trended only toward improved survival compared to patients who did not receive any RT (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.52–1.06 and HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.71–1.21, respectively). Conclusions. Despite the suggested radioresistance of CS, modern radiotherapies may present a treatment option for certain patients. Our results support a role for high-dose, advanced radiation therapies in selected high-risk CS patients with tumors in surgically challenging locations or unplanned positive margins. While there is an associated survival rate benefit, further, prospective studies are needed for validation.
High Recurrence Rate of Myxofibrosarcoma: The Effect of Radiotherapy Is Not Clear
Background. Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is one of the more common types of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in patients over 60 years of age. Local recurrence (LR) rates have been reported to be higher compared to other STS types. Patients and Methods. Using a population-based series from the southern Sweden health care region, 56 consecutive patients with MFS and localized disease at diagnosis were analyzed with respect to LR and distant metastases after surgery ± adjuvant treatment. Results. The overall local recurrence (n = 15) and metastasis (n = 13) rates were 27% and 21%, respectively; 6 patients had both. Surgical margin was the only statistically significant prognostic factor for LR. Patients operated with a marginal margin had an HR of 4.5 (CI 1.3–15.1, ) and those operated with an intralesional margin 9.4 (CI 2.0–43.5, ) compared to those operated with a wide surgical margin. There was no difference in the LR rate depending on radiotherapy or not, although the latter group had smaller and more superficial tumors. 23 patients received radiotherapy, 9 of whom developed LR, all within the irradiated field. A tumor size >5 cm and intralesional surgical margin were shown to be risk factors for distant metastases. Conclusions. The rate of LR for patients with myxofibrosarcoma was high. The impact of RT on local tumor control was unclear. The surgical margin was important for both local and distant tumor control. Large tumor size was a risk factor for distant metastasis.