Grape Powder Improves Age-Related Decline in Mitochondrial and Kidney Functions in Fischer 344 Rats
Kidney injury (urinary KIM-1 and protein) and oxidative stress (protein carbonyls and NADPH oxidase) markers in control and grape power (GP) treated adult and aged rats. KIM-1 and protein levels were measured in the urine (a, b). Protein carbonyls and gp91phox-NADPH oxidase were determined in renal tissues (c, d). KIM-1 (a), protein (b), and protein carbonyls (c) were determined using kit based assay system. gp91phox-NADPH oxidase (d) was determined by Western blotting. (d) Upper panel: representative blots for NADPH oxidase and β-actin, protein loading control. Lower panel: quantification of protein bands. Results are mean ± SEM. rats. from adult and aged control rats.
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