Application of Molecular Hydrogen as a Novel Antioxidant in Sports ScienceRead the full article
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity publishes research involving cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism etc.
Chief Editor, Dr Vasquez-Vivar has experience in free radical and redox biology research including the discovery of the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in the regulation of superoxide generation by endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
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Acute Effects of Triathlon Race on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers
The response to strenuous exercise was investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative damage, thiol redox status, and inflammation assessments in 32 enrolled triathlon athletes ( yrs) during Ironman® (IR), or half Ironman® (HIR) competition. In biological samples, inflammatory cytokines, aminothiols (glutathione (GSH), homocysteine (Hcy), cysteine (Cys), and cysteinylglycine (CysGly)), creatinine and neopterin, oxidative stress (OxS) biomarkers (protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)), and ROS were assessed. Thirteen HIR and fourteen IR athletes finished the race. Postrace, ROS (HIR +20%; IR +28%; ), TBARS (HIR +57%; IR +101%), PC (HIR +101%; IR +130%) and urinary neopterin (HIR +19%, IR +27%) significantly (range -0.0001) increased. Moreover, HIR showed an increase in total Cys +28%, while IR showed total aminothiols, Cys, Hcy, CysGly, and GSH increase by +48, +30, +58, and +158%, respectively (range -0.0001). ROS production was significantly correlated with TBARS and PC ( and ; ) and aminothiols levels (range -0.47; range -0.0001). In particular, ROS was directly correlated with the athletes’ age (; ), with ultraendurance years of training (; ) and the days/week training activity (; ). Finally, the days/week training activity (hours/in the last 2 weeks) was found inversely correlated with the IL-6 postrace (; ). A strenuous performance, the Ironman® distance triathlon competition, alters the oxidant/antioxidant balance through a great OxS response that is directly correlated to the inflammatory parameters; furthermore, the obtained data suggest that an appropriate training time has to be selected in order to achieve the lowest ROS production and IL-6 concentration at the same time.
Comparative Study on Pulmonary Toxicity in Mice Induced by Exposure to Unflavoured and Apple- and Strawberry-Flavoured Tobacco Waterpipe Smoke
The use of flavoured tobacco products in waterpipe smoking (WPS) has increased its attractiveness and consumption. Nonetheless, the influence of flavourings on pulmonary toxicity caused by WPS remains unclear. Here, the pulmonary toxicity induced by plain (P)-WPS, apple-flavoured (AF)-WPS, and strawberry-flavoured (SF)-WPS (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 1 month) was investigated in mice. Control mice were exposed to air. Exposure to P-WPS or AF-WPS or SF-WPS induced a dose-dependent increase of airway hyperreactivity to methacholine. The histological evaluation of the lungs in all the WPS groups revealed the presence focal areas of dilated alveolar spaces and foci of widening of interalveolar spaces with inflammatory cells. In the lung, the activity of neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase and the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and glutathione were increased by the exposure to P-WPS, AF-WPS, or SF-WPS. However, the levels of interleukin-6 and catalase were only increased in the AF-WPS and SF-WPS groups, while nitric oxide activity was only increased in the SF-WPS group. DNA injury was increased in all the WPS groups, but the concentration of cleaved caspase-3 was only elevated in the SF-WPS group. The exposure to either P-WPS or AF-WPS or SF-WPS increased the expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in the lung. In conclusion, the exposure to P-WPS or AF-WPS or SF-WPS induces alterations in lung function and morphology and causes oxidative stress and inflammation via mechanisms that include activation of NF-κB. Overall, the toxicity of flavoured tobacco WPS, in particular SF-WPS, was found to be greater than that of unflavoured WPS.
Effects of Tomato Juice Intake on Salivary 8-Oxo-dG Levels as Oxidative Stress Biomarker after Extensive Physical Exercise
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) at a normal level are important molecules involved in several cellular processes including immune response and cell signalling. Overproduction of ROS may lead to elevated oxidative stress and consequently to age-related diseases. Most of the studies related to oxidative stress in humans have been done on blood samples. However, blood sampling might be painful, requires special qualified personnel, and has to be performed at medical centers. An alternative to blood is saliva. Saliva sampling is noninvasive and can be performed by the donor. Biomarker determination in saliva is becoming an important part of laboratory diagnosis, but method development is needed before it can be used in the clinics. In the present investigation, 16 donors performed extensive physical exercise by cycling and keeping their heart rate at 80% of maximum for 20 minutes. The physical activity was repeated 3 times: before tomato juice intake, after daily intake of 100 ml tomato juice during 3 weeks, and finally 3 weeks after finishing tomato juice intake (washout period). The level of the stress biomarker, salivary 8-oxo-dG, was determined before and after the physical activity. The results indicate that (a) 20 min extensive physical activity increases the level of 8-oxo-dG in saliva significantly () and (b) daily intake of 100 ml tomato juice may inhibit () overproduction of salivary 8-oxo-dG by 20 min physical activity. We conclude that the 20 min extensive physical activity increases the level of salivary 8-oxo-dG in healthy donors and 100 ml daily intake of tomato juice may inhibit the increase of 8-oxo-dG in saliva.
Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase Increases in Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis and Contributes to Valvular Interstitial Cell Calcification
Introduction. Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is a common disease associated with aging. Oxidative stress participates in the valve calcification process in CAVS. Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), also referred to as vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1), transforms primary amines into aldehydes, generating hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. SSAO is expressed in calcified aortic valves, but its role in valve calcification has remained largely unexplored. The aims of this study were to characterize the expression and the activity of SSAO during aortic valve calcification and to establish the effects of SSAO inhibition on human valvular interstitial cell (VIC) calcification. Methods. Human aortic valves from patients were used for mRNA extraction and expression analysis, Western blot, SSAO activity determination, immunohistochemistry, and the isolation of primary VIC cultures. Results. SSAO mRNA, protein, and activity were increased with increasing calcification within human aortic valves and localized in the vicinity of the calcified zones. The valvular SSAO upregulation was consistent after stratification of the subjects according to cardiovascular and CAVS risk factors associated with increased oxidative stress: body mass index, diabetes, and smoking. SSAO mRNA levels were significantly associated with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in calcified tissue. Calcification of VIC was inhibited in the presence of the specific SSAO inhibitor LJP1586. Conclusion. The association of SSAO expression and activity with valvular calcification and oxidative stress as well as the decreased VIC calcification by SSAO inhibition points to SSAO as a possible marker and therapeutic target to be further explored in CAVS.
Chronic Systemic Inflammation Exacerbates Neurotoxicity in a Parkinson’s Disease Model
Systemic inflammation is a crucial factor for microglial activation and neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration. This work is aimed at assessing whether previous exposure to systemic inflammation potentiates neurotoxic damage by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and how chronic systemic inflammation participates in the physiopathological mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease. Two different models of systemic inflammation were employed to explore this hypothesis: a single administration of lipopolysaccharide (sLPS; 5 mg/kg) and chronic exposure to low doses (mLPS; 100 μg/kg twice a week for three months). After three months, both groups were challenged with MPTP. With the sLPS administration, Iba1 staining increased in the striatum and substantia nigra, and the cell viability lowered in the striatum of these mice. mLPS alone had more impact on the proinflammatory profile of the brain, steadily increasing TNFα levels, activating microglia, reducing BDNF, cell viability, and dopamine levels, leading to a damage profile similar to the MPTP model per se. Interestingly, mLPS increased MAO-B activity possibly conferring susceptibility to MPTP damage. mLPS, along with MPTP administration, exacerbated the neurotoxic effect. This effect seemed to be coordinated by microglia since minocycline administration prevented brain TNFα increase. Coadministration of sLPS with MPTP only facilitated damage induced by MPTP without significant change in the inflammatory profile. These results indicate that chronic systemic inflammation increased susceptibility to MPTP toxic effect and is an adequate model for studying the impact of systemic inflammation in Parkinson’s disease.
Oxidative Stress and Dementia in Alzheimer’s Patients: Effects of Synbiotic Supplementation
Background. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly patients. Recently, several studies have shown that inflammation and oxidative stress precede the cardinal neuropathological manifestations of AD. In view of the proven antioxidant effects of probiotics, we proposed that continuous dietary supplementation with milk fermented with kefir grains might improve cognitive and metabolic and/or cellular disorders in the AD patients. Methods. This study was designed as an uncontrolled clinical investigation to test the effects of probiotic-fermented milk supplementation (2 mL/kg/daily) for 90 days in AD patients exhibiting cognitive deficit. Cognitive assessment, cytokine expression, systemic oxidative stress levels, and blood cell damage biomarkers were evaluated before (T0) and after (T90) kefir synbiotic supplementation. Results. When the patients were challenged to solve 8 classical tests, the majority exhibit a marked improvement in memory, visual-spatial/abstraction abilities, and executive/language functions. At the end of the treatment, the cytometric analysis showed an absolute/relative decrease in several cytokine markers of inflammation and oxidative stress markers (⋅O2–, H2O2, and ONOO−, ~30%) accompanied by an increase in NO bioavailability (100%). In agreement with the above findings by using the same technique, we observed in a similar magnitude an improvement of serum protein oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage/repair, and apoptosis. Conclusion. In conclusion, we demonstrated that kefir improves cognitive deficits, which seems to be linked with three important factors of the AD—systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood cell damage—and may be a promising adjuvant therapy against the AD progression.