Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Studies on Fruit-Skin Ethanol Extract of Annona muricataRead the full article
Journal of Toxicology publishes papers in all areas of toxicological sciences, including the structure, function, and mechanism of agents toxic to humans and/or animals, as well as toxicological medicine, safety evaluation, and environmental health.
Chief Editor, Professor Ng, has a background in the chemical speciation of arsenic species in environmental and biological media and the toxicity of mixed metals and organic pollutants.
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Potential Toxicity of the Essential Oil from Minthostachys mollis: A Medicinal Plant Commonly Used in the Traditional Andean Medicine in Peru
Medicinal plants are used throughout the world and the World Health Organization supports its use by recommending quality, safety and efficacy. Minthostachys mollis is distributed in the Andes of South America and is used by the population for various diseases. While studies have shown their pharmacological properties, the information about their safety is very limited. Then, the goal of this research was to determine the acute oral toxicity and in repeated doses during 28 days of Minthostachys mollis essential oil (Mm-EO) in rats. For the acute toxicity test two groups of rats, of three animals each, were used. Each group received Mm-EO in a single dose of 2000 or 300 mg/kg of body weight. For the repeated dose toxicity test, four groups of 10 rats each were used. Doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day were used, one group was control. With the single dose of Mm-EO of 2000 mg/kg of body weight, the three rats in the group showed immediate signs of toxicity and died between 36 and 72 hours. In the lung, inflammatory infiltrate was observed, predominantly lymphocytic with severe hemorrhage and presence of macrophages with hemosiderin. In the repeated dose study, male rats (5/5) and female rats (2/5) died at the dose of 500 mg/kg/day. The body weight of both male and female rats decreased significantly with doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day. The serum levels of AST and ALT increased significantly and the histopathological study revealed chronic and acute inflammatory infiltrate in the lung; while in the liver was observed in 80% of the cases (24/30) mild chronic inflammatory infiltrate and in some of those cases there was vascular congestion and in one case cytoplasmic vacuolization. The Mm-EO presented moderate acute oral toxicity, while with repeated doses for 28 days; there was evidence of toxicity, in a dose-dependent manner, mainly at the hepatic level.
Exposure of Fluoride with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Aggravates Testicular Damage and Spermatozoa Parameters in Mice
Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic disease worldwide that causes numerous complications, including male infertility. The prevalence of DM is 451 million people and estimated that would increase to 693 million in 2045. Fluorosis caused by drinking water contaminated with inorganic fluoride is a public health problem in many areas around the world. Previous studies have shown that fluoride exposure damages the male reproductive function. This study aimed to evaluate the fluoride sub-chronic exposure on the spermatozoa function in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. After confirming diabetes by measuring blood glucose levels, the male mice received 45.2 ppm of fluoride added or deionized water. We evaluated several parameters in diabetic mice exposed to fluoride: standard quality analysis, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ψm), the caspase activity in spermatozoa, urinary fluoride excretion, and histological evaluation in the testes. After 60 days of fluoride-exposure, diabetic mice, significantly decreased sperm quality (motility, viability, and concentration). Spermatozoa from fluoride-exposure in diabetic mice presented a significant decrease in ψm and a significant increase in activity caspase 3/7. Urinary fluoride excretion was decreased in diabetic mice exposed to fluoride. Subchronic fluoride exposure of mice with STZ-induced diabetes aggravated testicular damage and the spermatozoa function.
Lyophilized B. subtilis ZB183 Spores: 90-Day Repeat Dose Oral (Gavage) Toxicity Study in Wistar Rats
A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on lyophilized spores of the novel genetically modified strain B. subtilis ZB183. Lyophilized spores at doses of 109, 1010, and 1011 CFU/kg body weight/day were administered by oral gavage to Wistar rats for a period of 90 consecutive days. B. subtilis ZB183 had no effects on clinical signs, mortality, ophthalmological examinations, functional observational battery, body weights, body weight gains and food consumption in both sexes. There were no test item-related changes observed in haematology, coagulation, urinalysis, thyroid hormonal analysis, terminal fasting body weights, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology. A minimal increase in the plasma albumin level was observed at 1010 and 1011 CFU/kg/day doses without an increase in total protein in males or females and was considered a nonadverse effect. The “No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)” is defined at the highest dose of 1011 CFU/kg body weight/day for lyophilized B. subtilis ZB183 Spores under the test conditions employed.
A Toxicological Evaluation of Methylliberine (Dynamine®)
Methylliberine (CAS 51168-26-4), a methoxiuric acid, is a caffeine metabolite present at low levels in various Coffea plants; however, very little has been published regarding this compound and we could find no toxicological data in the public domain. Therefore, we undertook the toxicological investigation of a pure, synthetic form of methylliberine in order to evaluate its potential health hazards as a food ingredient. A (1) bacterial reverse mutation test, (2) in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, (3) in vivo mammalian micronucleus test, and (4) 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study in rats with a 28-day recovery period were conducted. No in vitro mutagenic or clastogenic activity was observed in the presence or absence of metabolic activation up to the maximum OECD recommended test concentrations. No genotoxicity was observed in the mammalian micronucleus study up to the highest dose tested of 700 mg/kg bw. In the 90-day study, methylliberine was administered to Han:WIST rats at doses of 0, 75, 112, 150, 187, and 225 mg/kg bw/day. No mortality or morbidity was observed and no toxicologically relevant clinical effects or effects on clinical pathology parameters were observed. In male animals, test item-related effects on body weight and sexual organs, which were not reversible after a 28-day recovery period without treatment, were observed in the high-dose group. Body weight development was also slightly and reversibly depressed in the 187 mg/kg bw/day male group. No toxicological effects were observed in females. The NOAEL for females was determined to be 225 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested, while the NOAEL for males was determined to be 150 mg/kg bw/day. Future studies are encouraged to corroborate the safety, and assess efficacy, of methylliberine in humans.
A Toxicological Evaluation of Mango Leaf Extract (Mangifera indica) Containing 60% Mangiferin
A battery of OECD- and GLP-compliant toxicological studies was performed on mango leaf extract (Mangifera indica) containing 60% mangiferin (MLE). No evidence of genotoxicity was found in a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames). While evidence of clastogenic activity was noted in an in vitro chromosomal aberration test, an in vivo mammalian micronucleus test showed no findings up to the limit dose (2000 mg/kg bw). A 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study was conducted in rats using doses of 0 (vehicle control), 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg bw/day. Based on the lack of mortality or toxic effects in the 90-day study, the NOAEL for MLE in Han:Wist male and female rats was determined to be 2000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested.
Preventative Effects of Vitamin E on Testicular Damage and Sperm Parameters in the First-Generation Mice Pups due to Pre- and Postnatal Mancozeb Exposure
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E on mancozeb-induced testis damage of the first-generation pups during intrauterine and lactating periods. Two groups of pregnant NMRI mice received 500 mg/kg mancozeb (MNZ) as MNZ group and 200 mg/kg vitamin E as MNZ+vit.E group before receiving MNZ. In addition, a vehicle and a control group were designed every other day in gestation and lactation periods. The male pups from each group were maintained until adulthood (8-10 W). The left testes and epididymides were removed following the sacrifice of the pups. Then, they were weighed, and sperm parameters including number, viability, motility, and morphology and testis structure were evaluated. A significant decrease occurred in sperm parameters of the mancozeb-treated pups compared to the control and vehicle groups. Treatment with vitamin E reversed the deleterious effects of MNZ to a nearly normal condition. Testis parameters including the weight, gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameters, and Johnsen’s score, as well as the number of germ cells such as spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and Sertoli, decreased significantly in the MNZ group, compared to the amount in the control and vehicle groups. Interestingly, the treatment with vitamin E was reversed in most of these parameters. Based on the results, the exposure of pups to mancozeb during pregnancy and lactating periods negatively affects the reproductive system of male pups. However, the coadministration of vitamin E could prevent the deleterious effects of mancozeb on sperm and testis parameters.