Journal of Pharmaceutics / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Microbicides for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted HIV Infections

Table 1

Key events and predictions in the development of microbicides.

YearKey events and predictions in the development of microbicides

In 1981Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was identified.
In 1983Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was defined as causative agent.
In 1985–1988Nonoxynol-9 was reported to destroy HIV in vitro.
In 1992Nonoxynol-9 was applied vaginally in the macaque monkey to reduce the risk of infection.
In 1994International working group on microbicides established Contraceptive Research and Development Program (CONRAD), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Food and Drug Administration, and US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to facilitate global coordination of microbicide development.
In 1997Nonsurfactant class of microbicides was shown to be safe and acceptable after phase I clinical trials in female volunteers.
In 1998Phase III trials of nonoxynol-9 show no protection against HIV.
In 2000First major international conference was devoted to microbicides.
In 2001Promising microbicides entered phase II clinical trials to verify safety and acceptability.
In 2002WHO report on nonoxynol-9 concludes that nonoxynol-9 should not be used for HIV/STI prevention.
In 2003-2004Microbicides expected to enter phase III trials for effectiveness against HIV.
In 2007First-generation microbicides showed; 50–60% effective against HIV.
In 2008Researchers discovered that long chain polyanionic compounds could prevent in vitro HIV infection by preventing HIV entry into target cells through nonspecific inhibition of viral binding.
In 2010Acid buffering gels could be used to lower vaginal pH and inactivate HIV and were shown to be safe in clinical trials.
In 2012-13CAPRISA 008, a planned follow-on study to CAPRISA 004, which would evaluate the effectiveness of distributing 1% tenofovir gel in communities where CAPRISA 004 took place, was launched in 2012. Results from the facts 001 trial for 1% tenofovir gel are expected in 2013.

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