Factors Associated with Apgar Score among Newborns Delivered by Cesarean Sections at Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Addis AbabaRead the full article
Journal of Pregnancy publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth. Topics include biomedical aspects of pregnancy labour, maternal health and breastfeeding.
Journal of Pregnancy maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Neonatal and Maternal Complications of Placenta Praevia and Its Risk Factors in Tikur Anbessa Specialized and Gandhi Memorial Hospitals: Unmatched Case-Control Study
Background. Placenta praevia is a disorder that happens during pregnancy when the placenta is abnormally placed in the lower uterine segment, which at times covers the cervix. The incidence of placenta praevia is 3-5 per 1000 pregnancies worldwide and is still rising because of increasing caesarean section rates. Objective. To assess and identify the risk factors and maternal and neonatal complications associated with placenta praevia. Method and Materials. Target populations for this study were all women diagnosed with placenta praevia transvaginally or transabdominally either during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy or intraoperatively in Tikur Anbessa Specialized and Gandhi Memorial Hospitals. The study design was unmatched case-control study. Data was carefully extracted from medical records, reviewed, and analyzed. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed using adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results. Pregnancies complicated by placenta praevia were 303. Six neonatal deaths were recorded in this study. The magnitude of placenta praevia observed was 0.7%. Advanced maternal age (≥35) (AOR 6.3; 95% CI: 3.20, 12.51), multiparity (AOR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.46, 3.46), and previous history of caesarean section (AOR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.64, 4.58) had an increased odds of placenta praevia. Postpartum anemia (AOR 14.6; 95% CI: 6.48, 32.87) and blood transfusion 1-3 units (AOR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.10, 6.53) were major maternal complications associated with placenta praevia. Neonates born to women with placenta praevia were at increased risk of respiratory syndrome (AOR 4; 95% CI: 1.24, 13.85), IUGR (AOR 6.3; 95% CI: 1.79, 22.38), and preterm birth (AOR 8; 95% CI: 4.91, 12.90). Conclusion. Advanced maternal age, multiparity, and previous histories of caesarean section were significantly associated risk factors of placenta praevia. Adverse maternal outcomes associated with placenta praevia were postpartum anemia and the need for blood transfusion. Neonates born from placenta praevia women were also at risk of being born preterm, intrauterine growth restriction, and respiratory distress syndrome.
Magnitude and Associated Factors of Unintended Pregnancy among Pregnant Women at Saesie Tsaeda Emba Woreda Eastern Zone of Tigray, North Ethiopia, 2018
Background. Each year there were about 80 million women who experienced unintended pregnancy in the globe. In Ethiopia, around one third of women have experiences of unintended pregnancy. However, the magnitude of unintended pregnancy was not determined in the study area. Hence the aim of the study was to assess the magnitude and associated factors of unintended pregnancy among pregnant women. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was employed among 345 participants. Participants were selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected though face to face interview by structured questioner. It was entered, clean and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive analysis was done to see the frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Adjusted odds ratio was computed at 95% confidence level to determine the effect of independent variable on the outcome variable. Variable at value < 0.05 was declared as statistically significant variable. Model goodness of fit was checked using Hosmer lemeshow test. Result. The overall magnitude of unintended pregnancy was 24.9%. Employed women were 60% less likely having unintended pregnancy (AOR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.015, 0.785).Single women were 1.4 times more likely reported unintended pregnancy (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.005, 3.675). Unintended pregnancy among ever visited by health extension workers was 1.7 times higher than not visited (AOR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.09, 5. 128). Unintended pregnancy among who had information about family planning were about 70% less likely reported unintended pregnancy than their counterparties (AOR 0.3, 95% CI: 0 .067, 0.845). Marital status, occupational status, visited by health extension workers, having information about family planning, discussing with their partners about contraceptive were found the major factors of unintended pregnancy. Thus the district health office, Tigray regional health office and other stakeholder should work to improve family planning accessibility, awareness, and utilization to overcome the problem.
Determinants of Change in Fertility among Women in Rural Areas of Uganda
Fertility among rural women in Uganda continues to decline. Studies on fertility in Uganda have focused on the overall fertility in the country. In this study, we focus on determinants of change in fertility among rural women in Uganda using a multivariate Poisson decomposition technique to quantify the contribution of changes in the socioeconomic and demographic composition of women which we also refer to as the characteristic effects and changes in their fertility behavior (the coefficients’ effects or risk of childbearing) to the overall reduction in fertility among women in rural areas during the 2006–2016 period. The “characteristics effects” are used to mean the effect of changing composition of women by the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics between 2006 and 2016. On the other hand, fertility behavior also presented as coefficients’ effects mean changes in the risk or likelihood of giving birth to children by the rural women between the two survey years. Our findings indicate that the mean number of children ever born (MCEB) reduced from 4.5 to 3.9 in 2006 and this reduction was associated with both the changes in composition of women and fertility behavior. The composition of women contributed to 42% while the fertility behavior contributed to 58% of the observed reduction. The education level attained and the age at first sex showed significant contributions on both components of the decomposition. The observed decline in fertility is largely associated with the variation in the risk of childbearing among the rural women. The variation in the risk of childbearing by education and age at first sex of the rural women showed to be the biggest contribution to the observed change in fertility. Continued improvements in access, attendance, and completion of secondary schools by women in rural areas will be the key drivers to Uganda’s overall transition to low fertility. Furthermore, with improved access to mass media in the rural areas, there can be changes in attitudes and large family size preferences which can create a conducive environment for the utilization of family planning services in the rural communities. Efforts should therefore focus on applying appropriate methods to deliver packaged family planning messages to these communities.
Exploring the Determinants of Antenatal Care Services Uptake: A Qualitative Study among Women in a Rural Community in Northern Ghana
Background. Global evidence has shown significant contribution of Antenatal care (ANC) in the detection and treatment of pregnancy related complications. Over the years, many areas in Ghana have recorded high uptake of ANC. However, this is not the case for Binduri district in Northern Ghana where only 37.4% of pregnant women utilised the services of ANC during their period of pregnancy compared to a national figure of 87%. We therefore sought to explore the determinants of ANC uptake among women who failed to utilise ANC services during their period of pregnancy in Binduri District in Northern Ghana. Methodology. The study was an exploratory descriptive study using purposive sampling technique. A total of 15 women who met the inclusion criteria for the study were recruited for a face-to-face interview. The data were analysed using the procedure of inductive thematic analysis. Results. The study findings showed that several factors hindered the use of ANC among our participants. The individual factors that were responsible for nonutilisation of ANC included financial constraints hindering registration with the national health insurance scheme, excuses of being busy, perception that pregnancy was not sickness and concentration on work. Perceived poor attitude of nurses was the only health system factor that contributed to non utilisation of ANC services. Conclusion. There is the need for establishment of registration centres of the national health insurance in all communities to make the scheme more accessible. There should also be intensive public education on importance of attending ANC.
Prediction of Preterm Birth by Maternal Characteristics and Medical History in the Brazilian Population
Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a previously published algorithm for first-trimester prediction of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) in a cohort of Brazilian women. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing routine antenatal care. Maternal characteristics and medical history were obtained. The data were inserted in the Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) online calculator to estimate the individual risk of PTB. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the effects of maternal characteristics on the occurrence of PTB. A receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to determine the detection rates and false-positive rates of the FMF algorithm in predicting PTB <34 weeks of gestation in our population. Results. In total, 1,323 women were included. Of those, 23 (1.7%) had a spontaneous PTB before 34 weeks of gestation, 87 (6.6%) had a preterm birth between 34 and 37 weeks, and 1,197 (91.7%) had a term delivery. Smoking and a previous history of recurrent PTB between 16 and 30 weeks of gestation without prior term pregnancy were significantly more common among women who delivered before 34 weeks of gestation compared to those who delivered at term were (39.1% vs. 12.0%, and 8.7% vs. 0%, , respectively). Smoking and history of spontaneous PTB remained significantly associated with spontaneous PTB in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Significant prediction of PTB <34 weeks of gestation was provided by the FMF algorithm (area under the ROC curve 0.67, 95% CI 0.56–0.78, ), but the detection rates for fixed false-positive rates of 10% and 20% were poor (26.1% and 34.8%, respectively). Conclusions. Maternal characteristics and history in the first trimester can significantly predict the occurrence of spontaneous delivery before 34 weeks of gestation. Although the predictive algorithm performed similarly to previously published data, the detection rates are poor and research on new biomarkers to improve its performance is needed.
Patient Attitudes toward Gestational Weight Gain and Exercise during Pregnancy
Body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are important factors for neonatal and maternal health. Exercise helps women moderate their BMI and GWG, and provides health benefits to mother and child. This survey study assessed patients’ perceptions of counseling they received during pregnancy, their sources of information about GWG, and their attitudes toward exercise during pregnancy. We distributed an anonymous survey to 200 pregnant women over the age of 18 at a tertiary care center in Danville, Pennsylvania. Survey questions included demographics, discussions with medical providers regarding GWG and exercise, and their exercise habits before and during pregnancy. 182 women (91%) responded. Most reported their provider discussed weight and diet (78.8%), expected GWG (81.6%), and exercise during pregnancy (79.8%); however, 28% of obese women and 25% of women who did not plan to exercise during pregnancy reported not receiving exercise counseling. Approximately 20% of women did not plan to exercise during pregnancy. Women decreased the number of days per week they exercised (40.6% with 3 or more days prepregnancy versus 30.7% during pregnancy, ). Some patients who did not exercise prior to pregnancy (12%) expressed interest in a personal training session. Among women in the eight month or later, 42.4% were above GWG recommendations. Our study found barriers to adequate activity during pregnancy; 20% of pregnant women not receiving/remembering counseling regarding exercise. Interest in personal training from patients that did not exercise suggests they would benefit from increased efforts to encourage physical activity. Exercise and GWG counseling based in medical science as well as patient psychological needs will help efforts to reduce GWG and improve pregnancy outcomes.