Highly Efficient Photocatalysis by Zinc Oxide-Reduced Graphene Oxide (ZnO-rGO) Composite Synthesized via One-Pot Room-Temperature Chemical Deposition MethodRead the full article
Journal of Nanotechnology publishes papers related to the science and technology of nanosized and nanostructured materials, with emphasis on their design, characterization, functionality, and preparation for implementation in systems and devices.
Journal of Nanotechnology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Thermoelectric Effect of Buckypaper/Copper Assembly
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit excellent electrical and thermal properties that have been used in several device assemblies, such as electrode sheets made from an aggregate of CNTs, also called as buckypaper (BP). Despite that, the properties of single CNTs are reduced when randomly assembled to form a BP. In this way, this study investigated the thermoelectric effect of a BP electrode assembled on a copper electrode with an active area of 4.0 cm2. The micrographs were obtained by scanning electron microscopy and show morphology agglomerated of multiwalled CNTs, which permeated into the filter paper, forming a thickness of 67.33 μm. Moreover, indoor/outdoor tests were performed approaching the BP electrode from a heat source. Thus, the electrical responses in function of temperature variation show maximum thermovoltages of 9.0 mV and 40.73 mV from indoor and outdoor tests, respectively. Finally, an average Seebeck coefficient for the BP/copper electrodes array of 35.34 ± 6.0 mV/K was estimated from 298 to 304 K. These findings suggest that this assembly will be easily applied in thermoelectric device concepts.
Fluoride in Drinking Water and Nanotechnological Approaches for Eliminating Excess Fluoride
Arising awareness of health hazards due to long-term exposure of fluoride has led researchers to seek for more innovative strategies to eliminate excess fluoride in drinking water. Fluoride-bearing chemicals in both natural and anthropogenic sources contaminate drinking water, which mainly cause for human fluoride ingestion. Hence, developing sustainable approaches toward alleviation is essential. Among many emerging techniques of defluoridation, nanotechnological approaches stand out owing to its high efficiency, and hence, as in many areas, nanotechnology for excess fluoride removal in water is gaining ground compared to other conventional adsorbents and process. The present review focuses on some of the advanced and recent nanoadsorbents including their strengths and shortcomings (e.g., CNT, LDH, graphene-based nanomaterials, and magnetic nanomaterials) and other processes involving nanotechnology while discussing basic aspects of hydrochemistry of fluoride and geological conditions leading for water fluoride contamination. Considering all the findings in survey, it is evident that developing more sustainable techniques is essential rather than conducting batch-type experiments solely.
Antagonistic Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Certain Mixtures of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and the Bulk (Al2O3, CuO, and SiO2) on Gill Histology in Clarias gariepinus
Background. The effect of nanoparticles (NPs) on aquatic environments is poorly studied. Aim. This study evaluates the toxicity of joint effects of these different metal nanoparticles and their bulk in mixtures (Al2O3, CuO, and SiO2) on fish using histological biomarker. Materials and Methods. The bulk and nano sizes of three salts (Al2O3, CuO, and SiO2) were used. Nanosizes ranged from 25 nm to 100 nm. The juvenile fishes of Clarias gariepinus (mean Length: 12.3 ± 3.5 cm; mean weight: 18.52 ± 6.41 g) were used for the acute and chronic toxicity tests. They were exposed to 7 mg/L each of the bulk and nano sizes of the three metallic oxides either singly or in mixtures for 28 days. The basis for the sublethal concentration was that the 96 hr acute toxicity of the varied sizes of the three metallic oxides was nontoxic up to the concentrations of 100 mg/L with no significant mortality at the highest exposure concentrations. The gills were collected for histopathology. Results. Of the three metal oxide nanoparticles, SiO was the most toxic, with histopathological alteration index (HAI) of 20.0, followed by nano-CuO (HAI, 10.0) and nano-Al2O3 (HAI, 2.0). In single exposure, the gill alterations include high frequencies of erosion of gill lamella (EGL), hypertrophy (HPT), oedema (OD), and necrosis (N). Less damage was observed at the combination of the metal oxide nanoparticles of SiO + Al2O3, SiO + CuO and SiO + Al2O3 + CuO in equal (1 : 1—HAI, 2 and 6; 1 : 1 : 1—HAI, 6) and unequal ratios (1 : 2—HAI, 16 and 6; 2 : 1—HAI, 8 and 6). Similarly, all bulk combinations were also antagonistic except for the equal ratio of bulk CuO (HAI, 20) and bulk Al2O3 (HAI, 10) that gave additive effect with HAI of 32. Conclusion. The joint actions of nano Al2O3 and CuO with SiO produced a low toxic effect, unlike the high toxicity of their single trials; this also indicates that nano Al2O3 and CuO are antagonists. Similarly, among the bulk metal oxides (SiO, Al2O3, and CuO), CuO was the most toxic. Bulk SiO and Al2O3 are antagonistic on the effects of CuO on the fish gill. There is need to properly document the ecological implications of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment.
A Simple Method for Patterning Nanoparticles on Planar Surfaces
This paper describes a simple method to pattern nanoparticles on planar surfaces using the antifouling property of poly(ethylene glycol) monolayers deposited from a solution on the native oxide of titanium. Atomic force microcopy was used to pattern the poly(ethylene glycol) monolayers producing protein active sites on the protein-resistant surface. Patterns with different sizes have been generated by shaving the monolayers with different repetitions. Friction force microscopy was used to image the patterns. The smallest patterns are 50 nm and the largest patterns are 500 nm at full width half maximum. The smallest pattern was produced with one shave, whereas the largest pattern was produced by shaving the monolayers 112 times. Protein-coated nanoparticles were immobilised on the shaved (protein active) part of the monolayers by dipping the patterned samples into a solution that contains 2% by volume protein-functionalized nanoparticles with a nominal diameter of 40 nm. Atomic force microscopy was used to take a topographic image of the samples. The topographic image showed that the protein-functionalized nanoparticles were attached onto the shaved part of the substrate but not on the poly(ethylene glycol)-covered part of the substrate. The level of aggregation of the nanoparticles was also investigated from the topographic image. The section analysis of the topographic image of the nanoparticle patterns showed a height of 40 nm which proved that only a monolayer of particles were deposited on the shaved part of the monolayer.
Growth of MWCNTs on Plasma Ion-Bombarded Thin Gold Films and Their Enhancements of Ammonia-Sensing Properties Using Inkjet Printing
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized on thin gold (Au) films using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The films were evolved to catalytic Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) by plasma argon (Ar) ion bombardment with a direct current (DC) power of 216 W. The characteristics of the MWCNTs grown on Au catalysts are strongly dependent on the growth temperature in thermal CVD process. The MWCNTs were then purified by oxidation (550°C) and acid treatments (3 : 1 H2SO4/HNO3). After purifying the MWCNTs, they were dispersed in deionized water (DI water) under continuous sonication. The MWCNT solution was then ultrasonically dissolved in a conducting polymer mixture of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to prepare for an electronic ink. The ink was deposited onto the flexible and transparent plastic substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with fabricated silver interdigitated electrode using two methods such as drop-casting and inkjet printing to compare in the detection of ammonia (NH3) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at room temperature. Based on the results, the gas response, sensitivity, and selectivity properties of MWCNT-PEDOT:PSS gas sensor for NH3 detection are significantly enhanced by using inkjet printing technique. The sensing mechanism of fabricated gas sensor exposed to NH3 has been also proposed based on the swelling behaviour of polymer due to the diffusion of NH3 molecules into the polymer matrix. For the MWCNTs, they were mentioned as the conductive pathways for the enhancement of gas-sensing signals.
Visible Light-Active CdS/TiO2 Hybrid Nanoparticles Immobilized on Polyacrylonitrile Membranes for the Photodegradation of Dyes in Water
Reusable photocatalytic polyacrylonitrile membrane-supported cadmium sulphide/titanium dioxide hybrid nanoparticles (CdS/TiO2-PAN) were prepared using a dry-wet phase inversion technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the photocatalytic membranes had a porous sublayer, a compact top layer, and that, some of the nanoparticles were not encapsulated by the membranes. The average crystallite sizes of the CdS, TiO2, and CdS/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles were 3.41 nm, 10.47 nm, and 12.17 nm, respectively. The combination of CdS and TiO2 nanoparticles led to a red shift (band gap; ca. 2.6 eV) of the absorption band and extended the optical absorption spectrum into the visible region relative to TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of CdS/TiO2-PAN membranes was explored in the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation, and the results revealed that the best photocatalytic performance was achieved by 0.1 g CdS/TiO2-PAN photocatalytic membrane with 5% loading of the CdS/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles, which degraded 66.29% of methylene blue in 210 minutes at 25°C and pH 8.5. It was found that the optimum loading of nanoparticles in the membranes was 0.1 g. All the photocatalytic membranes showed an insignificant decrease in the photocatalytic activity when used repeatedly. According to literature, CdS/TiO2-PAN photocatalytic membranes have not been prepared before for the purpose of treating simulated wastewater.