The Effect of Lymph Nodes’ Histologic Response on Survival Outcomes in Moroccan Patients with Rectal CancerRead the full article
International Journal of Surgical Oncology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of surgical oncology.
International Journal of Surgical Oncology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Early Lymph Node Metastasis May Predict Poor Prognosis in Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Background. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is a relatively rare event in soft tissue sarcoma. An association between the timing of LNM detection and patient prognosis is presently unknown. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological features of 33 patients with LNM between 2001 and 2015. Analysis of the timing of LNM diagnosis was grouped according to patients presenting LNM in either <8 months (the median time from primary tumor diagnosis to LNM) or ≥8 months after primary tumor diagnosis. Results. A relationship between the primary tumor size and the timing of the LNM was not significantly found (Rs = 0.0088, ). Sixteen patients had an LNM detection duration of <8 months, and 17 patients had a duration of ≥8 months. The 5-year survival for patients with an LNM detection duration of <8 months and ≥8 months was 19% and 71%, respectively (). There were 19 patients with pulmonary metastases. Among them, there were 13 patients with a duration of primary tumor diagnosis to LNM of <8 months and 6 with a duration of ≥8 months (). Conclusion. Early LNM (<8 months) may predict poor prognosis in soft tissue sarcoma.
Increased Tissue Penetration of Doxorubicin in Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) after High-Intensity Ultrasound (HIUS)
Background. High‐intensity ultrasound (HIUS) has been studied for the past two decades as a new therapeutic option for solid tumor direct treatment and a method for better chemotherapy delivery and perfusion. This treatment approach has not been tested to our knowledge in peritoneal metastatic therapy, where limited tissue penetration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been a main problem. Both liquid instillations and pressurized aerosols are affected by this limitation. This study was performed to evaluate whether HIUS improves chemotherapy penetration rates. Methods. High-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) was applied for 0, 5, 30, 60, 120, and 300 seconds on the peritoneal tissue samples from fresh postmortem swine. Samples were then treated with doxorubicin via pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) under 12 mmHg and 37°C temperature. Tissue penetration of doxorubicin was measured using fluorescence microscopy on frozen thin sections. Results. Macroscopic structural changes, identified by swelling of the superficial layer of the peritoneal surface, were observed after 120 seconds of HIUS. Maximum doxorubicin penetration was significantly higher in peritoneum treated with HIUS for 300 seconds, with a depth of 962.88 ± 161.4 μm (p < 0.05). Samples without HIUS had a penetration depth of 252.25 ± 60.41. Tissue penetration was significantly increased with longer HIUS duration, with up to 3.8-fold increased penetration after 300 sec of HIUS treatment. Conclusion. Our data indicate that HIUS may be used as a method to prepare the peritoneal tissue for intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Higher tissue penetration rates can be achieved without increasing chemotherapy concentrations and preventing structural damage to tissue using short time intervals. More studies need to be performed to analyze the effect of HIUS in combination with intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
Thyroidectomy as Treatment of Choice for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Background. Despite a large amount of data, the optimal surgical management of differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. Current guidelines recommend total thyroidectomy if primary thyroid cancer is >4 cm, while for tumors that are between 1 and 4 cm in size, either a bilateral or a unilateral thyroidectomy may be appropriate as surgical treatment. In general, total thyroidectomy would seem to be preferable because subtotal resection can be correlated with a higher risk of local recurrences and cervical lymph node metastases; on the other hand, total thyroidectomy is associated with more complications. Methods. This is a retrospective study conducted on 359 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, subjected to total thyroidectomy. Our aim was to correlate clinical and pathological features (extrathyroid tumor growth, bilaterality, nodal and distant metastasis) with patient (gender and age) and tumor (size and histotype) characteristics. Moreover, we recorded postoperative complications, including hypoparathyroidism and laryngeal nerve damage. Results. In our study, we found a high occurrence of pathological features indicating cancer aggressiveness (bilaterality, nodal metastases, and extrathyroid invasion). On the other hand, total thyroidectomy was associated with relatively low postsurgical complication rates. Conclusions. Our data support the view that total thyroidectomy remains the first choice for the routine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer.
Postsurgical Ultrasound Evaluation of Patients with Prosthesis in Acellular Dermal Matrix: Results from Monocentric Experience
Mastectomy and breast prosthetic reconstruction is the most common surgical treatment for women diagnosed with breast cancer. In the last few years, breast prosthetic augmentation in acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been introduced. The aim of this study is to present our single-center experience in evaluating the outcome of patients who underwent breast reconstruction in ADM, using ultrasound (US) examination. US follow-up allows evaluating both normal postoperative findings and changes and potential local complications, demonstrating that ADM is a safe option for women candidates for mastectomy.
Prognostic Factors and Survival Time in Patients with Small Bowel Tumors: A Retrospective Observational Study
This study examines survival time in patients with small bowel tumors and determines its contributing factors. In this retrospective analytical study, the medical records of 106 patients with small bowel cancer (from 2006 to 2011) were investigated. The patients’ data were extracted, including age, gender, clinical presentation, location of tumor, histological type, grade of tumor, site of metastasis, and type of treatment. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to estimate the overall survival time and the Log-rank test to compare the survival curves. The Cox regression was also used to evaluate the effect of the confounding variables on survival time. This study was conducted on 106 patients with a median age of 60 years (Min: 7, Max: 87). The tumor types included adenocarcinoma (n=78, 73.6%), MALToma (n=22, 20.8%), neuroendocrine tumors (n=4, 3.8%), and sarcoma (n=2. 1.8%). Grade 3 adenocarcinomas had a significantly lower survival time (HR: 1.48, 95% CI: 0.46-2.86; P=.001). Combined therapy (chemotherapy and surgery) vs. single-therapy (only surgery) had no significant effects on the survival of the patients with MALToma (5 vs. 3 months, 95% CI: 1.89-5.26; P=.06). There were no significant differences between the survival time in adenocarcinoma and MALToma (12 vs. 20 months, 95% CI: 6.24-24.76; P=.49). Tumor grade was the only independent prognostic factor that affected survival in adenocarcinoma. The patients diagnosed with MALToma in the study also had a poor prognosis, and the type of treatment had no significant effect on their survival.
A Concise Review of Pelvic Radiation Therapy (RT) for Rectal Cancer with Synchronous Liver Metastases
Background and Objective. Colorectal cancer is a major health concern as a very common cancer and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The liver is a very common site of metastatic spread for colorectal cancers, and, while nearly half of the patients develop metastases during the course of their disease, synchronous liver metastases are detected in 15% to 25% of cases. There is no standardized treatment in this setting and no consensus exists on optimal sequencing of multimodality management for rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases. Methods. Herein, we review the use of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) as part of potentially curative or palliative management of rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases. Results. There is accumulating evidence on the utility of pelvic RT for facilitating subsequent surgery, improving local tumor control, and achieving palliation of symptoms in patients with stage IV rectal cancer. Introduction of superior imaging capabilities and contemporary RT approaches such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) offer improved precision and toxicity profile of radiation delivery in the modern era. Conclusion. Even in the setting of stage IV rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases, there may be potential for extended survival and cure by aggressive management of primary tumor and metastases in selected patients. Despite lack of consensus on sequencing of treatment modalities, pelvic RT may serve as a critical component of multidisciplinary management. Resectability of primary rectal tumor and liver metastases, patient preferences, comorbidities, symptomatology, and logistical issues should be thoroughly considered in decision making for optimal management of patients.