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International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of chemistry associated with drug discovery, design, and synthesis.
International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Hair Growth Promoting Effect of Dicerocaryum senecioides Phytochemicals
Phytochemicals from Dicerocaryum senecioides were studied for hair rejuvenation activity using BalB/c mice. Solvent extractions and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were used to extract and isolate the phytochemicals respectively. Phytochemicals were identified by spraying with target-specific revealing reagents. In vivo hair growth stimulating activity for each extract was tested on denuded dorsal skin of 5-week old BalB/c mice against the controls and the standard drug minoxidil. The parameters used to evaluate hair growth were hair growth completion time, hair length, hair weight, hair follicle length, and relative hair follicle area. The identified phytochemicals from the active ethanol extract were steroidal glycosides, triterpenoid glycosides, and flavonoid glycosides. Flavonoid glycosides treatment had the uppermost hair rejuvenation capacity as measured by the shortest hair growth completion time (19 days) versus control (29 days) and longest hair length (11.04 mm and 11.86 mm for male and female mice respectively while the control group had 5.15 mm for male mice and 5.33 mm for female mice). Hair growth stimulation by flavonoid glycosides was also dependent on dose concentration. It can be concluded from this study that flavonoid glycosides extracted from the leaves of Dicerocaryum senecioides have remarkable hair rejuvenation capacity in BalB/c mice. The present results provides insights on the use of Dicerocaryum senecioides for hair rejuvenation in traditional practices and on the potential of the plant as a source of novel compounds that can be used as hair growth promoters.
Caffeates and Caffeamides: Synthetic Methodologies and Their Antioxidant Properties
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and include a variety of chemical structures, from simple molecules such as phenolic acids to condensed tannins and highly polymerized compounds. Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is one of the hydroxycinnamate metabolites more widely distributed in plant tissues. It is present in many food sources, including coffee drinks, blueberries, apples, and cider, and also in several medications of popular use, mainly those based on propolis. Its derivatives are also known to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, and antibacterial activities, and can contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This review is an overview of the available information about the chemical synthesis and antioxidant activity of caffeic acid derivatives. Considering the relevance of these compounds in human health, many of them have been the focus of reviews, taking as a center their obtaining from the plants. There are few revisions that compile the chemical synthesis methods, in this way, we consider that this review does an important contribution.
Evaluation of the Molecular State of Piperine in Cyclodextrin Complexes by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Solid-State Fluorescence Measurements
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of piperine (PP) in ground mixtures (GMs) of PP with α-, β-, or γ-cyclodextrin (CD) under conditions of humidity, heat, and humidity-heat. In solid-state fluorescence measurements, the fluorescence maxima for GM (PP/αCD = 1/2), GM (PP/βCD = 1/1), and GM (PP/γCD = 1/1) were observed at 463, 472, and 469 nm, respectively. On the other hand, the humidified GMs exhibited maxima at 454, 460, and 465 nm, while the humidified-heated samples displayed fluorescence maxima at 455, 455, and 469 nm, respectively. Therefore, the molecular behavior of PP with α, β, and γCD was concluded to vary upon the coordination of water molecules. NIR and solid-state fluorescence measurements revealed that the molecular behavior of PP inside the α, β, and γCD cavity changed by water and heat factors depends on the mobility of the methylenedioxyphenyl group.
Synthesis and Evaluation of Baylis-Hillman Reaction Derived Imidazole and Triazole Cinnamates as Antifungal Agents
Allylic acetates derived from Baylis-Hillman reaction undergo efficient nucleophilic isomerization with imidazoles and triazoles to provide imidazolylmethyl and triazolylmethyl cinnamates stereoselectively. Antifungal evaluation of these derivatives against Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits good minimum inhibitory concentration values. These compounds exhibit low toxicity in proliferating MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Structure activity relationship studies indicate that halogenated aromatic derivatives provide better antifungal activity.
Crystallography and Its Impact on Carbonic Anhydrase Research
X-ray and neutron crystallography are powerful techniques utilized to study the structures of biomolecules. Visualization of enzymes in complex with substrate/product and the capture of intermediate states can be related to activity to facilitate understanding of the catalytic mechanism. Subsequent analysis of small molecule binding within the enzyme active site provides insight into mechanisms of inhibition, supporting the design of novel inhibitors using a structure-guided approach. The first X-ray crystal structures were determined for small, ubiquitous enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase (CA). CAs are a family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the hydration of CO2, producing and a proton. The CA structure and ping-pong mechanism have been extensively studied and are well understood. Though the function of CA plays an important role in a variety of physiological functions, CA has also been associated with diseases such as glaucoma, edema, epilepsy, obesity, and cancer and is therefore recognized as a drug target. In this review, a brief history of crystallography and its impact on CA research is discussed.
Phytochemical Study and Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Properties of Methanolic Extract from Baccharis obtusifolia
Some species of the Baccharis genus have been shown to possess important biomedical properties, including cytotoxic activity. In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract from Baccharis obtusifolia (Asteraceae) in cancer cell lines of prostate (PC-3), colon (RKO), astrocytoma (D-384), and breast (MCF-7). The methanolic extract displayed the largest substantial cytotoxic effect in lines of colon cancer (RKO) and cerebral astrocytoma (D-384). Chromatographic purification of the B. obtusifolia methanolic extract led to the isolation and identification of 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (1) and 5-hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone (2) compounds of the flavonoid type.