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International Journal of Chemical Engineering publishes research focused on technologies for the production, processing, transportation and use of chemicals on an industrial scale.
International Journal of Chemical Engineering maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Kinetic Models for Glucosamine Production by Acid Hydrolysis of Chitin in Five Mushrooms
In this paper, glucosamine was produced by acid hydrolysis of five mushrooms. The glucosamine yields were investigated, and the optimum conditions were obtained as follows: acid type, sulfuric acid; acid concentration, 6 M; ratio of raw material to acid volume, 1 : 10; hydrolysis temperature, 100°C; and time, 6 h. Under these conditions, the glucosamine conversion from chitin content reached up to 92%. The results of hydrolysis kinetics indicated that hydrolysis of five mushrooms to glucosamine followed zero-order kinetics. Moreover, the relatively low activation energy for hydrolysis of straw mushroom (18.31 kJ/mol) and the highest glucosamine yield (56.8132 ± 3.5748 mg/g DM, 0.9824 g/g chitin) indicated that hydrolysis of straw mushroom was energy-saving. Thus, sulfuric acid hydrolysis of straw mushroom for glucosamine production should be considered as an efficient process for the future industrial application. However, further study is needed for glucosamine purification.
Dynamic Simulations of the Allam Cycle Power Plant Integrated with an Air Separation Unit
The unprecedented rise in carbon dioxide levels due to anthropogenic activities, if left unchecked, can lead to increased global warming. Electricity and heat generation account for around 25% of this greenhouse gas emission. The Allam cycle, a new oxy-fuel power cycle that emits virtually no CO2 and NOx, is inherently integrated with an air separation plant. In this study, Aspen Plus Dynamics was used to model the integrated Allam power plant/air separation unit (ASU) with a high degree of heat and work integration. The steady-state model developed agrees with the model developed by Net Power. Regulatory and advanced PID controllers were implemented for major equipment to meet operation objectives. Controller set point change, power ramp down, and natural gas composition change were studied, and key plant performance indicators were monitored and analyzed. This study shows that the Allam cycle power plant integrated with an ASU is controllable with the proposed control strategy under a tightly integrated configuration.
Investigation of Heavy Metal Effects on the Anaerobic Co-Digestion Process of Waste Activated Sludge and Septic Tank Sludge
The effect of copper, zinc, chromium, and lead on the anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and septic tank sludge in Hanoi was studied in the fermentation tests by investigating the substrate degradation, biogas production, and process stability at the mesophilic fermentation. The tested heavy metals were in a range of concentrations between 19 and 80 ppm. After the anaerobic tests, the TS, VS, and COD removal efficiency was 4.12%, 9.01%, and 23.78% for the Cu(II) added sample. Similarly, the efficiencies of the Zn(II) sample were 1.71%, 13.87%, and 16.1% and Cr(VI) efficiencies were 15.28%, 6.6%, and 18.65%, while the TS, VS, and COD removal efficiency of the Pb(II) added sample was recorded at 16.1%, 17.66%, and 16.03% at the concentration of 80 ppm, respectively. Therefore, the biogas yield also decreased by 36.33%, 31.64%, 31.64%, and 30.60% for Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), and Pb(II) at the concentration of 80 ppm, compared to the raw sample, respectively. These results indicated that Cu(II) had more inhibiting effect on the anaerobic digestion of the sludge mixture than Zn(II), Cr(VI), and Pb(II). The relative toxicity of these heavy metals to the co-digestion process was as follows: Cu (the most toxic) > Zn > Cr > Pb (the least toxic). The anaerobic co-digestion process was inhibited at high heavy metal concentration, which resulted in decreased removal of organic substances and produced biogas.
One-, Two-, and Three-Parameter Isotherms, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Evaluation of Co(II) Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Dead Neem Leaves
Water pollution by heavy metals like Co(II) is particularly of concern because of their persistence in the environment, toxicity, and ability to bioaccumulate in organisms. In this study, the influence of contact time at three initial concentration, pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and kinetics, thermodynamics, and one-, two-, and three-parameter isotherm modeling of the adsorption of Co(II) on neem leaves (DNL) was investigated. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR, TGA-DSC, EDX, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. DNL is composed of many Co(II) surface-binding groups and a BET surface area of 0.2783 m2/g dominated by meso- and macropores. Equilibrium was attained in 10 minutes for the three concentrations with a removal efficiency of 85–97%. ∆G° of −5.424 to −6.068 KJ/mol at 25 to 60°C, respectively, indicated spontaneous adsorption with increasing temperature. D-R adsorption energies of 0.649 to 2.433 KJ/mol revealed physical adsorption. Maximum adsorption capacity of 9.201–523.900 mg/g was obtained by Freundlich and Jovanovic isotherms. Adsorption was very favourable as evident by the high Kiselev equilibrium constant (11.652–172.78 L/mg) and very low RL values of 0.001–0.026. Adsorption occurred by repulsive mechanism as indicated by Fowler–Guggenheim and Hill–de Boer negative interaction energies (−16.182 to −90.163 and −111.102 to −3328.86 KJmol−1, respectively), confirming maximum Co(II) adsorption at pH 3. Results can be used in the design of an efficient adsorption system using neem leaves which is very efficient in removing low and high levels of heavy metals like cobalt ions from wastewater.
Fatty Acid Content in Biomasses: State-of-the-Art and Novel Physical Property Estimation Methods
In line with the growing environmental awareness developed along the last decades, modern societies are urged to evolve into sustainable economics where the reuse of organic wastes represents the key feedstock for a green transaction. The oil phase obtained from different biomasses has the potential to be a source of food supplements, medicines, cosmetics, or feedstock for biofuel production. In the present work, the composition of 104 different biomasses including seeds, peels, flowers, plants, and leaves has been reviewed for the lipid content. Based on the most frequent fatty acids screened, experimental data for normal boiling point temperature, normal melting point, critical properties, and acentric factor were collected and compared with the most common estimation methods, which are functions of the molecular structure and interaction between different functional groups. New predictive equations have been proposed to reduce the estimation deviation and to provide simple correlations to be used in simulation software when dealing with biomass processes. For all the properties, the estimations proposed have an absolute average deviation equal to or lower than 4.6%.
A Modified Model for Kinetic Analysis of Petroleum Coke
In this study, a nonisothermal kinetics analysis of petcoke was performed at heating rates of 10, 15, and 20°C/min using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The behaviour of petcoke at different gasification stages (dewatering, volatilization, char burning, and burnout) was studied. The effect of heating rate on the activation energy of petcoke gasification was also investigated. The activation energy of petcoke was estimated using different kinetic models that include volume reaction model (VRM), shrinking core model (SCM), random pore model (RPM), Coats and Redfern model (CRM), and normal distribution function (NDF). The NDF model was modified in this study. It was found that the experimental data were best fitted with the modified normal distribution function (MNDF) and SCM. The results also showed that activation energy decreases as heating rate increases, leading to reduction in gasification completion time.