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Interleukin-33 (IL-33) as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Factor in Traumatic Brain Injury
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a cytokine involved in interleukin-1 family. Role of IL-33 in immune system activation is well described in the literature. IL-33 has been identified as an endogenous alarm signal (alarmin) to alert various types of immune cells to trauma. In this narrative review, we aimed to underline the diagnostic and prognostic importance of IL-33 in trauma, particularly in brain trauma.
Vital Signs Directed Therapy for the Critically Ill: Improved Adherence to the Treatment Protocol Two Years after Implementation in an Intensive Care Unit in Tanzania
Treating deranged vital signs is a mainstay of critical care throughout the world. In an ICU in a university hospital in Tanzania, the implementation of the Vital Signs Directed Therapy Protocol in 2014 led to an increase in acute treatments for deranged vital signs. The mortality rate for hypotensive patients decreased from 92% to 69%. In this study, the aim was to investigate the sustainability of the implementation two years later. An observational, patient-record-based study was conducted in the ICU in August 2016. Data on deranged vital signs and acute treatments were extracted from the patients’ charts. Adherence to the protocol, defined as an acute treatment in the same or subsequent hour following a deranged vital sign, was calculated and compared with before and immediately after implementation. Two-hundred and eighty-nine deranged vital signs were included. Adherence was 29.8% two years after implementation, compared with 16.6% () immediately after implementation and 2.9% () before implementation. Consequently, the implementation of the Vital Signs Directed Therapy Protocol appears to have led to a sustainable increase in the treatment of deranged vital signs. The protocol may have potential to improve patient safety in other settings where critically ill patients are managed.
No Sedation, No Traction, and No Need for Assistance: Analysis of New Prakash’s Method of Shoulder Reduction
Background and Objective. Shoulder dislocations, which often occur anterior, account for about half of all dislocations. There are numerous reduction methods reported for the conservative treatment of acute anterior dislocations. However, there is still an ongoing search for an optimal method given the procedure time, possible complications, success rates, and need for sedation/analgesia in existing methods. This study seeks to explore the effectiveness and safety of Prakash’s method in the treatment of acute shoulder dislocations, which is a novel method in the treatment of anterior shoulder dislocations. Materials and Methods. A total of 19 patients who were admitted to the emergency department with the diagnosis of anterior shoulder dislocation participated in this study. The diagnosis of shoulder dislocation was established in the emergency department with physical examination and anteroposterior shoulder radiography. The method was applied only once to the patients in the sitting position by the same physician without using any help, traction, anesthesia, analgesia, and myorelaxant. Results. The mean age of the patients was 37.3 ± 13.1 years. Among them, 36.8% were female and 63.2% were male. Recurrent dislocations were observed in 21.1% of the patients. The success rate of the method was 94.7% . No complication was noted in the patients. The mean procedure time was 243 ± 38 seconds. Conclusion. Prakash’s method is a safe method for anterior shoulder dislocations that can be quickly performed with no need for sedation, assistance, and traction and has a high success rate.
A Novel Index for Prompt Prediction of Severity in Patients with Unstable Angina Pectoris
Objectives. Rapid risk stratification by emergency department (ED) physicians to evaluate patients with chest pain for predicting the short-term occurrence of major adverse cardiac event (MACE) is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) levels and compare with the modified heart score (m-HS) and stress testing to predict the severity of high-risk patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) in the ED. Methods. This study is prospective which included 316 patients with UAP and 316 control healthy subjects. The study took place from 01 April 2016, until 01 April 2017, in Medipol University. Result. The mean PLR levels in the UAP group were higher than those in the control group (). The mean PLR of the m-HS ≥4 group was higher than that in the m-HS ≤3 group (). The mean levels of PLR in the subgroups based on the stress testing positivity were higher than those in the stress testing negative subgroup (). PLR levels were positively correlated with the m-HS, stress testing, and treatment decision in this study (r = 0.559; ; r = 0.582; ; r = 0.789; , respectively). Conclusion. A positive correlation was determined with an increase in m-HS, treatment decision, and positive exercise testing as the PLR levels increased, indicating the severity of high risk of UAP in the ED.
The Impact of Emergency Interventions and Patient Characteristics on the Risk of Heart Failure in Patients with Nontraumatic OHCA
Background. Since out-of-hospital cardiac arrest- (OHCA-) related dysfunction (ischemic/reperfusion injury and inflammatory response) might result in long-term impairment, we suspect that new-onset heart failure might be common in long-term survivors. However, these relationships had not been well addressed, and we aimed to analyze the impact of emergency interventions and patient characteristics on the risk of new-onset heart failure in patients with nontraumatic OHCA. Methods. The Taiwanese government healthcare database contains data for 49,101 nontraumatic OHCA adult patients from 2011-2012, which were analyzed in this study. Nontraumatic OHCA patients who survived to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included as the study group (n = 7,321). Matched patients (n = 21,963) were recruited as a comparison group. Patients with any history of heart failure or cardiac arrest were not included in either group. All patients were followed-up for 6 months for the identification of new-onset heart failure. Adjustments were made for demographics, age, emergency interventions, and comorbidities as potential risk factors. Results. In all, 3.84% (n = 281) of OHCA patients suffered new-onset heart failure, while only 1.24% (n = 272) of matched patients in the comparison group suffered new-onset heart failure. Strong risk factors for heart failure were age (60–75 years, HR: 11.4; 95% CI: 9–14.4), medical history (myocardial infarction, HR: 2.47; 95% CI: 2.05–2.98 and cardiomyopathy, HR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.45–5.94), and comorbidities during hospitalization (ischemic heart disease, HR: 4.5; 95% CI: 3.46–5.86). Only extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) decreased the risk of heart failure. Most (53.6%) heart failure events occurred within 60 days after OHCA. Conclusion. An age from 61 to 75 years, a history of myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy, and ischemic heart disease or infection as comorbidities occurring during hospitalization were strong risk factors for new-onset heart failure in OHCA patients. However, ECMO could decrease this risk. More importantly, most heart failure events occurred within 60 days after OHCA.
Presentations Related to Acute Paracetamol Intoxication in an Urban Emergency Department in Switzerland
Aim. To investigate the characteristics of Emergency Department (ED) presentations due to acute paracetamol intoxication. Methods. Retrospective observational study of patients presenting to the ED of Bern University Hospital between May 1, 2012, and October 31, 2018, due to a paracetamol overdose (defined as intake of >4 g/24 h). Cases were identified using the full-text search of the electronic patient database and were grouped into intentional (suicidal/parasuicidal) and unintentional intoxications (e.g., patient unaware of maximal daily dose). Results. During the study period, 181 cases were included and 143 (79%) of those were intentional. Compared to the patients in the unintentional group, patients in the intentional group were more often female (85% vs 45%, ) and younger (median age 23.0 vs 43.5 years, ), more frequently suffered from psychiatric comorbidities (93%, (including 49% with borderline personality disorder) vs 24%, ), and paracetamol was more often taken as a single dose (80% vs 13%, ). Although the median daily ingested dose was lower in the unintentional than in the intentional group (8.2 g vs 12.9 g, ), patients in the unintentional group presented later (29% vs 84% within 24 h of ingestion, ), included more cases of acute liver failure (nine (24%) vs six (4%), ), and were more often hospitalised (24% vs 52% treated as outpatients, ). There were no significant differences between the groups regarding drug-induced liver injury (seven cases (5%) in the intentional and one (3%) in the unintentional group) or fatalities (one in each group). Conclusions. The majority of presentations due to paracetamol poisoning were intentional, most commonly in female patients with borderline personality disorder. Patients with unintentional paracetamol intoxication had worse outcomes with respect to acute liver failure and hospitalisation. Future preventive measures should raise awareness of paracetamol toxicity in the general population and encourage particular attention and frequent follow-ups when prescribing paracetamol for vulnerable groups.