Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Cold Hypersensitivity in the Hands and Feet May Be Associated with Functional Dyspepsia: Results of a Multicenter Survey Study

Table 2

Dyspepsia in the CHHF and non-CHHF groups before and after propensity matching.

VariableBefore matchingAfter matching
CHHFNon-CHHF valueCHHFNon-CHHF value
(%) (%) (%) (%)

Digestion
 Good814 (67.3)1453 (83.3)<0.001440 (68.8)513 (80.2)<0.001
 Bad395 (32.7)291 (16.7)200 (31.3)127 (19.8)
Appetite
 Extremely good74 (6.1)131 (7.5)<0.00143 (6.7)45 (7.0)0.045
 Good608 (50.3)1014 (58.1)319 (49.9)366 (57.2)
 Average423 (35)508 (29.1)223 (34.9)188 (29.4)
 Not good103 (8.5)91 (5.2)54 (8.5)41 (6.4)
Discomfort in the upper abdomen
 Often74 (6.1)40 (2.3)<0.00132 (5.0)17 (2.7)0.038
 Sometimes441 (36.5)410 (23.5)210 (32.8)193 (30.2)
 Rarely694 (57.4)1294 (74.2)398 (62.2)430 (67.2)
Vomiting
 Often5 (0.4)5 (0.3)<0.0013 (0.5)3 (0.5)0.094
 Sometimes133 (11)98 (5.6)67 (10.5)45 (7.0)
 Rarely1071 (88.6)1641 (94.1)570 (89.1)592 (92.5)
Motion sickness
 Often40 (3.3)19 (1.1)<0.00116 (2.5)11 (1.7)0.001
 Sometimes327 (27)292 (16.7)165 (25.8)113 (17.7)
 Rarely842 (69.6)1433 (82.2)459 (71.7)516 (80.6)
Exhaustion when hungry
 Often132 (10.9)120 (6.9)<0.00160 (9.4)41 (6.4)0.057
 Sometimes524 (43.3)617 (35.4)260 (40.6)245 (38.3)
 Rarely553 (45.7)1007 (57.7)320 (50)354 (55.3)
Belching
 Often135 (11.2)125 (7.2)<0.00170 (10.9)53 (8.3)0.272
 Sometimes408 (33.7)578 (33.1)217 (33.9)224 (35.0)
 Rarely666 (55.1)1041 (59.7)353 (55.2)363 (56.7)
Epigastric burning
 Often48 (4.0)41 (2.4)<0.00119 (3.0)17 (2.7)0.049
 Sometimes354 (29.3)396 (22.7)194 (30.3)156 (24.4)
 Rarely807 (66.7)1307 (74.9)427 (66.7)467 (73.0)
Postprandial fullness
 Often73 (6.0)47 (2.7)<0.00132 (5.0)19 (3.0)0.001
 Sometimes326 (27.0)285 (16.3)166 (25.9)120 (18.8)
 Rarely810 (67.0)1412 (81.0)442 (69.1)501 (78.3)
Nausea
 Often32 (3.6)20 (1.6)<0.00113 (2.8)12 (2.6)0.002
 Sometimes228 (25.6)187 (15.2)121 (25.7)74 (16.2)
 Rarely631 (70.8)1024 (83.2)336 (71.5)370 (81.1)
Epigastric pain (related to digestion)
 Often40 (3.3)22 (1.3)<0.00112 (1.9)9 (1.4)0.078
 Sometimes250 (20.7)223 (12.8)118 (18.4)90 (14.1)
 Rarely919 (76.0)1499 (86.0)510 (79.7)541 (84.5)
Bloating
 Often76 (6.3)51 (2.9)<0.00135 (5.5)16 (2.5)<0.001
 Sometimes422 (34.9)419 (24)228 (35.6)157 (24.5)
 Rarely711 (58.8)1274 (73.1)377 (58.9)467 (73.0)

values are calculated from chi-square tests of the CHHF versus non-CHHF groups.
CHHF: cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet; Non-CHHF: noncold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet.
Sample questions: digestion: “how is your digestion?”; appetite: “how is your appetite?”; symptoms (discomfort in the upper abdomen, vomiting, motion sickness, exhaustion when hungry, belching, epigastric burning, postprandial fullness, nausea, epigastric pain, and bloating): “do you have any of the following symptoms?”

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