Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Vascular Dementia: An Overview of Scientific Evidence

Table 1

Nomenclature, key bioactive compounds, and mechanisms of action of commonly used herbs for VaD.

Botanic nameChinese pinyin or other namesKey bioactive compoundsPossible mechanisms of action associated with VaD

Ginkgo biloba LYin Shing Ye,
Ginkgo leaf,
EGb761 (standardized ginkgo extract)
Quercetin, kaempferol, ginkgolides (e.g., ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C), and bilobalide(i) Antioxidant via decreasing oxygen radical discharge
(ii) Anti-inflammation via decreasing proinflammatory functions of macrophages
(iii) Increase glucose uptake and utilization and ATP production
(iv) Improve blood flow by increasing red blood cell deformability and decreasing red cell aggregation
(v) Induce nitric oxide production
(vi) Inhibit platelet activating factors

Huperzia serrataShe Zu Shi Shan,
toothed clubmoss,
huperzine A (key bioactive extract)
Huperzine A (HupA),
huperzine B (HupB), hyperzinine, carinatumin A and B
(i) Potent antiacetylcholinesterase
(ii) Antioxidant
(iii) Antiapoptosis
(iv) Anti--amyloid peptide fragment
(v) Inhibition of oxygen-glucose deprivation
(vi) MMDA receptor antagonism

Curcuma longaJiang Huang,
ginger yellow
Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin,
curcuminoids, turmerone, zingiberene
(i) Antioxidant via inhibiting lipid peroxidation, scavenging ROS, and reactive nitrogen species
(ii) Anti-inflammation
(iii) Block aggregation and fibril formation
(iv) Cholesterol-lowering properties

(Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng)
Panax ginseng: Ren Shen, ginseng, Korean ginseng
Panax notoginseng: San Qi, Sanchi, Chinese notoginseng
Ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, Rg2, Rg3, Rg5, Rc, Rd, Re notoginsenosides R1, R2, R3(i) Antioxidant
(ii) Antiapoptosis
(iii) Anti-inflammation
(iv) Reduce amyloid- and cholinesterase activity
(v) Decrease blood pressure and enhance blood perfusion.

Bacopa monnieriBrahmiBacosides (e.g., bacoside A, bacoside B, etc.) brahmine, nicotine, herpestine(i) Antioxidant activity
(ii) Free radical scavenging
(iii) Increased cerebral blood flow via vasodilation
(iv) Restoration of synaptic activity and improving nerve impulse transmission
(v) Modifying ACh level
(vi) Binding and detoxification of metal ions (metal chelation)
(vii) Removal of -amyloid deposits
(viii) Antidepressant

Crocus sativusXi Hong Hua
Crocin, crocetin(i) Antioxidant effect
(ii) Antiapoptosis
(iii) Anti-inflammation
(iv) Antidepressant
(v) Antiplatelet aggregation

Camellia sinensis Cha
green tea
Polyphenols (e.g., epigallocatechin-3-gallate), caffeine, amino acids(i) Antioxidant effect
(ii) Antiapoptosis
(iii) Anti-inflammation
(iv) Elevation of -secretase activity and inhibition of -secretase activity

You are browsing a BETA version of Hindawi.com. Click here to switch back to the original design.