Biogenic AgNPs—A Nano Weapon against Bacterial Canker of Tomato (BCT)Read the full article
Advances in Agriculture publishes research on the cultivation of soil and crops, and the rearing of livestock. Its focus is on new methods and technologies for improving agricultural processes, increasing yield, conservation and breeding.
Advances in Agriculture maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Quantitative Determination of Cadmium (Cd) in Soil-Plant System in Potato Cropping (Solanum tuberosum var. Huayro)
One of the main daily consumer products in Peru is potato, but in recent years, the addition of agrochemicals with possible heavy metal content, such as cadmium (Cd) has decreased the quality of the final product resulting in a negative impact on soils. The objective of this study is to determine the concentration of Cd in cultivation areas and in potato plantations. For this purpose, 6 tuber samples, 6 leaf samples, as well as 6 samples of agricultural soil used for cultivation were taken. Subsequently, the concentrations of Cd were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and the results were subjected to variance analysis and mean comparison test (Tukey ). Soil analysis for Cd shows that 50% of samples are not suitable for agricultural use, with concentrations reaching 3.99 mg kg−1 Cd; 83% of tuber samples pose a health risk, exceeding the Maximum Allowable Limits (0.1 mg kg−1) set by the Codex Alimentarius; and in the case of the leaves as a whole they have alarming levels of Cd, exceeding 2 mg kg−1.
Uptake and Dissipation of Carbofuran and Its Metabolite in Chinese Kale and Brinjal Cultivated Under Humid Tropic Climate
Carbofuran is an insecticide with a broad spectrum of activity and is relatively cheap. It is banned in many countries in the world; however, it remains widely used in Asia, Australia, and South America. Carbofuran is commonly used in vegetable farming in Malaysia and it is a legally registered pesticide. This study reports the uptake and dissipation of carbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran in Chinese kale and brinjal under humid tropic field conditions. The residue profile in plants demonstrated an increase to a maximum, followed by a consistent reduction to a level below the limit of determination (<0.01 mg/kg) over the experimental period. The maximum residue concentration was attained on Day 3 for kale (1.16 mg/kg fresh weight) and Day 7 for brinjal (0.06 mg/kg fresh weight) after carbofuran application. In order to comply with the maximum residue level (MRL) of 0.01 mg/kg, the preharvest interval for kale and brinjal were suggested at 23 and 28 days, respectively. The preharvest interval indicates that carbofuran is not recommended for Chinese kale but it is acceptable for brinjal. The average half-life of carbofuran in soil is 1.24 days, shorter than the literature values reported based on temperate condition, indicating accelerated dissipation under tropical climate. The estimated half-life of carbofuran in leaves was shorter than that in fruits with kale leaves reported at 2.54 days whilst brinjal leaves and fruits recorded at 3.22 and 10.33 days, respectively.
Biochemical Charcterization of Some Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) Germplasm in Ghana
Corms of eighteen (18) genotypes comprising twelve (12) introduced and six (6) local genotypes were studied for their nutrient quality to provide information on their nutrient characteristics for a holistic development of the crop. The crop is known for its edible corms and leaves. Corms are boiled before eating and take a short time to cook as their carbohydrate structure is not complex. The leaves are eaten as vegetables. The crops were planted at Nobewam in the Ejisu-Juaben Municipality in the Ashanti Region of Ghana using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The biochemical or nutritional analysis was done at Crop and Soil Sciences laboratory at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Data were collected on the chemical and mineral compositions of the genotypes (corms). Variations were observed in both chemical and mineral characteristics. Carbohydrate content of the genotypes ranged from 62% to 76%; protein ranged from 13% to 25%; fibre ranged from 1% to 2%; calcium ranged from 0.29% to 0.72% and iron content ranged from 0.18 mg/100 g to 1.18 mg/100 g. Significant differences were observed in both chemical and mineral traits, indicating a higher degree of variability in the genotypes. Significant and positive correlations were observed between protein and energy levels; magnesium and iron; magnesium and calcium; and potassium and ash. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the first component (PC1) accounted for 96% of variation. Some genotypes including; BL/SM/10, BL/SM/132, KA/019, SAO/020, BL/SM/151, BL/SM/80, BL/SM/116, BL/SM/16, and KA/035 possess desirable nutrient levels such as protein, fibre, carbohydrate, and iron which could be exploited for further development of taro in Ghana.
Description of Wheat Rusts and Their Virulence Variations Determined through Annual Pathotype Surveys and Controlled Multi-Pathotype Tests
Wheat production started in Australia around 1788 using early maturing varieties adapted to Australian conditions that were able to escape diseases as well as moisture stress conditions. Wheat production is concentrated on mainland Australia in a narrow crescent land considered as the wheat belt occupying an area of about 13.9 million hectares. Rusts are the most important production constraints to wheat production in the world and Australia causing significant yield losses and decreased the qualities of grains. Wheat is affected by three different types of rust diseases: leaf rust, stripe rust or yellow rust, and stem rust. Each species of the rust pathogen has many races or pathotypes that parasitize only on certain varieties of host species, which can only be traced and identified by differential cultivars. Pathotype surveillance is the basis for information on the virulence or pathogenic variations existing in a particular country or wheat growing region of the world. Studies in pathotype variation are conducted in controlled environments using multi-pathotype tests. The currently cultivated commercial wheat varieties of Australia possess leaf rust resistant genes: Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr13+, Lr14a, Lr17a, Lr17b, Lr20, Lr23, Lr24, Lr26, Lr27, Lr31, Lr34, Lr37, and Lr46; stem rust resistance genes: Sr2, Sr5, Sr8a, Sr8b, Sr9b, Sr9g, Sr11, Sr12, Sr13, Sr15, Sr17, Sr22, Sr24, Sr26, Sr30, Sr36, Sr38, and Sr57; and stripe rust resistance genes: Yr4, Yr9, Yr17, Yr18, Yr27, and Yr33. This paper discusses the historical and current significance of rusts to wheat production in the world with particular reference to Australia viz-a-viz detail description of each of the three rusts and their respective virulence variations through the resistance genes deployed in the commercial cultivars.
The Effect of Waxing Options on Shelf Life and Postharvest Quality of “ngowe” Mango Fruits under Different Storage Conditions
Mango is an economically important fruit crop but with a very short shelf life of about 4–9 days in ambient and between 2 and 3 weeks in cold storage. Extending the shelf life and marketing period of mango fruit requires application of quality preservation technologies. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of innovative waxing options on shelf life and postharvest quality of “ngowe” mango fruits stored under different storage conditions. A homogenous sample of mango fruits, variety “ngowe” harvested at mature green stage were subjected to two waxing treatments, namely Shellac or Decco wax™. The waxes were applied by dipping the fruits in wax for five seconds followed by air drying. The waxed fruits were then packed in carton boxes and stored either at ambient room temperature (25°C) or cold room (12°C). Random samples of three fruits from each treatment and storage conditions were taken for measurement of attributes associated with ripening after every 3 and 7 days for ambient and cold storage, respectively. These included cumulative weight loss, respiration, peel firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA) and beta carotene content. Results from the study showed that waxing with either Shellac or Decco wax was effective in prolonging shelf life of “ngowe” mango fruits by 3 and 6 days in ambient and cold storage respectively. Untreated fruits in ambient storage lost 5.3% of the initial weight by day 7 compared to an average of 4.5% for the waxed fruit (day 10). Waxed fruits in ambient had low CO2 concentration (59.53 ml/kg hr) compared to a high (88.11 ml/kg hr) CO2 concentration for the untreated fruits. Similarly, other ripening related changes including brix, color, and firmness were significantly slowed down by waxing, especially under cold storage. Findings from this study show the effectiveness of waxing in delaying mango fruit ripening. Waxing can therefore be used to extend the shelf life and marketing period for mango fruit.
Effectiveness of Tephrosia vogelii and Tephrosia candida Extracts against Common Bean Aphid (Aphis fabae) in Malawi
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) remain an important dietary protein source in Malawi. However, its production is highly hindered by insect pest and disease attack. The study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of Tephrosia vogelii and Tephrosia candida extracts against bean aphid (Aphis fabae). The evaluation involved two botanical extracts at three different concentrations (0.5%, 2%, and 5% w/v) against bean aphid. Plant extracts (leaves) were air-dried and milled. Powders were then soaked in a 2-litre plastic bucket of cold water. Results indicated that there was significant difference (P<0.05) among treatments. The effectiveness of the treatments was based on reduction in aphid population per plant, pod length, and bean yield. Pod length and bean yield were higher in T. vogelii and Karate as compared to untreated and T. candida. There was a high mortality rate of aphid on the plots treated with T. vogelii compared to plots treated with T. candida at the same concentration. Though these two plant extracts were not as effective as the synthetic insecticide in reducing aphid population, they were considerably and significantly found to be effective; hence, its use by poor-resource farmers is recommended in the protection of bean against aphid.